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  1. Abstract

    Advances in compressive sensing (CS) provided reconstruction algorithms of sparse signals from linear measurements with optimal sample complexity, but natural extensions of this methodology to nonlinear inverse problems have been met with potentially fundamental sample complexity bottlenecks. In particular, tractable algorithms for compressive phase retrieval with sparsity priors have not been able to achieve optimal sample complexity. This has created an open problem in compressive phase retrieval: under generic, phaseless linear measurements, are there tractable reconstruction algorithms that succeed with optimal sample complexity? Meanwhile, progress in machine learning has led to the development of new data‐driven signal priors in the form of generative models, which can outperform sparsity priors with significantly fewer measurements. In this work, we resolve the open problem in compressive phase retrieval and demonstrate that generative priors can lead to a fundamental advance by permitting optimal sample complexity by a tractable algorithm. We additionally provide empirics showing that exploiting generative priors in phase retrieval can significantly outperform sparsity priors. These results provide support for generative priors as a new paradigm for signal recovery in a variety of contexts, both empirically and theoretically. The strengths of this paradigm are that (1) generative priors can represent some classes of natural signals more concisely than sparsity priors, (2) generative priors allow for direct optimization over the natural signal manifold, which is intractable under sparsity priors, and (3) the resulting non‐convex optimization problems with generative priors can admit benign optimization landscapes at optimal sample complexity, perhaps surprisingly, even in cases of nonlinear measurements.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
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    We provide a non-asymptotic analysis of the spiked Wishart and Wigner matrix models with a generative neural network prior. Spiked random matrices have the form of a rank-one signal plus noise and have been used as models for high dimensional Principal Component Analysis (PCA), community detection and synchronization over groups. Depending on the prior imposed on the spike, these models can display a statistical-computational gap between the information theoretically optimal reconstruction error that can be achieved with unbounded computational resources and the sub-optimal performances of currently known polynomial time algorithms. These gaps are believed to be fundamental, as in the emblematic case of Sparse PCA. In stark contrast to such cases, we show that there is no statistical-computational gap under a generative network prior, in which the spike lies on the range of a generative neural network. Specifically, we analyze a gradient descent method for minimizing a nonlinear least squares objective over the range of an expansive-Gaussian neural network and show that it can recover in polynomial time an estimate of the underlying spike with a rate-optimal sample complexity and dependence on the noise level. 
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