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  1. Morrell, P (Ed.)
    Abstract By modeling the homoeologous gene losses that occurred in 50 genomes deriving from ten distinct polyploidy events, we show that the evolutionary forces acting on polyploids are remarkably similar, regardless of whether they occur in flowering plants, ciliates, fishes, or yeasts. We show that many of the events show a relative rate of duplicate gene loss before the first postpolyploidy speciation that is significantly higher than in later phases of their evolution. The relatively weak selective constraint experienced by the single-copy genes these losses produced leads us to suggest that most of the purely selectively neutral duplicate gene losses occur in the immediate postpolyploid period. Nearly all of the events show strong evidence of biases in the duplicate losses, consistent with them being allopolyploidies, with 2 distinct progenitors contributing to the modern species. We also find ongoing and extensive reciprocal gene losses (alternative losses of duplicated ancestral genes) between these genomes. With the exception of a handful of closely related taxa, all of these polyploid organisms are separated from each other by tens to thousands of reciprocal gene losses. As a result, it is very unlikely that viable diploid hybrid species could form between these taxa, since matings betweenmore »such hybrids would tend to produce offspring lacking essential genes. It is, therefore, possible that the relatively high frequency of recurrent polyploidies in some lineages may be due to the ability of new polyploidies to bypass reciprocal gene loss barriers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 22, 2023
  2. Genetic variants of mitochondrial DNA at the individual (heteroplasmy) and population (polymorphism) levels provide insight into their roles in multiple cellular and evolutionary processes. However, owing to the paucity of genome-wide data at the within-individual and population levels, the broad patterns of these two forms of variation remain poorly understood. Here, we analyze 1,804 complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Daphnia pulex, Daphnia pulicaria, and Daphnia obtusa. Extensive heteroplasmy is observed in D. obtusa, where the high level of intraclonal divergence must have resulted from a biparental-inheritance event, and recombination in the mitochondrial genome is apparent, although perhaps not widespread. Global samples of D. pulex reveal remarkably low mitochondrial effective population sizes, <3% of those for the nuclear genome. In addition, levels of population diversity in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are uncorrelated across populations, suggesting an idiosyncratic evolutionary history of mitochondria in D. pulex. These population-genetic features appear to be a consequence of background selection associated with highly deleterious mutations arising in the strongly linked mitochondrial genome, which is consistent with polymorphism and divergence data suggesting a predominance of strong purifying selection. Nonetheless, the fixation of mildly deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial genome also appears to be driving positive selection onmore »genes encoded in the nuclear genome whose products are deployed in the mitochondrion.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023