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  1. The post-Newtonian formalism plays an integral role in the models used to extract information from gravitational wave data, but models that incorporate this formalism are inherently approximations. Disagreement between an approximate model and nature will produce mismodeling biases in the parameters inferred from data, introducing systematic error. We here carry out a proof-of- principle study of such systematic error by considering signals produced by quasi-circular, inspiraling black hole binaries through an injection and recovery campaign. In particular, we study how un- known, but calibrated, higher-order post-Newtonian corrections to the gravitational wave phase impact systematic error in recovered parameters. As a first study, we produce injected data of non-spinning binaries as detected by a current, second-generation network of ground-based observatories and recover them with models of varying PN order in the phase. We find that the truncation of higher order (>3.5) post-Newtonian corrections to the phase can produce significant systematic error even at signal-to-noise ratios of current detector networks. We propose a method to mitigate systematic error by marginalizing over our ignorance in the waveform through the inclusion of higher-order post-Newtonian coefficients as new model parameters. We show that this method can reduce systematic error greatly at the cost of increasing statistical error. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    This review aims at providing an extensive discussion of modern constraints relevant for dense and hot strongly interacting matter. It includes theoretical first-principle results from lattice and perturbative QCD, as well as chiral effective field theory results. From the experimental side, it includes heavy-ion collision and low-energy nuclear physics results, as well as observations from neutron stars and their mergers. The validity of different constraints, concerning specific conditions and ranges of applicability, is also provided.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    The identification of the electromagnetic (EM) counterpart candidate ZTF19abanrhr to the binary black hole merger GW190521 opens the possibility to infer cosmological parameters from this standard siren with a uniquely identified host galaxy. The distant merger allows for cosmological inference beyond the Hubble constant. Here, we show that the three-dimensional spatial location of ZTF19abanrhr calculated from the EM data remains consistent with the latest sky localization of GW190521 provided by the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. If ZTF19abanrhr is associated with the GW190521 merger, and assuming a flat wCDM model, we find that $H_0=48^{+23}_{-10}\, \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$, $\Omega _m=0.35^{+0.41}_{-0.26}$, and $w_0=-1.31^{+0.61}_{-0.48}$ (median and $68{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ credible interval). If we use the Hubble constant value inferred from another gravitational-wave event, GW170817, as a prior for our analysis, together with assumption of a flat ΛCDM and the model-independent constraint on the physical matter density ωm from Planck, we find $H_0=68.9^{+8.7}_{-6.0}\, \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}\, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$.

     
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  4. Abstract

    The population-level distributions of the masses, spins, and redshifts of binary black holes (BBHs) observed using gravitational waves can shed light on how these systems form and evolve. Because of the complex astrophysical processes shaping the inferred BBH population, models allowing for correlations among these parameters will be necessary to fully characterize these sources. We hierarchically analyze the BBH population detected by LIGO and Virgo with a model allowing for correlations between the effective aligned spin and the primary mass and redshift. We find that the width of the effective spin distribution grows with redshift at 98.6% credibility. We determine this trend to be robust under the application of several alternative models and additionally verify that such a correlation is unlikely to be spuriously introduced using a simulated population. We discuss the possibility that this correlation could be due to a change in the natal black hole spin distribution with redshift.

     
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