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  1. Abstract We present results from deep H i and optical imaging of AGC 229101, an unusual H i source detected at v helio =7116 km s −1 in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind H i survey. Initially classified as a candidate “dark” source because it lacks a clear optical counterpart in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) or Digitized Sky Survey 2 (DSS2) imaging, AGC 229101 has 10 9.31±0.05 M ⊙ of H i , but an H i line width of only 43 ± 9 km s −1 . Low-resolution Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) imaging and higher-resolution Very Large Array (VLA) B-array imaging show that the source is significantly elongated, stretching over a projected length of ∼80 kpc. The H i imaging resolves the source into two parts of roughly equal mass. WIYN partially populated One Degree Imager (pODI) optical imaging reveals a faint, blue optical counterpart coincident with the northern portion of the H i . The peak surface brightness of the optical source is only μ g ∼ 26.6 mag arcsec −2 , well below the typical cutoff that defines the isophotal edge of a galaxy, and its estimated stellar mass is only 10 7.32±0.33more »M ⊙ , yielding an overall neutral gas-to-stellar mass ratio of M / M * = 98 − 52 + 111 . We demonstrate the extreme nature of this object by comparing its properties with those of other H i -rich sources in ALFALFA and the literature. We also explore potential scenarios that might explain the existence of AGC 229101, including a tidal encounter with neighboring objects and a merger of two dark H i clouds.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Abstract

    We discuss five blue stellar systems in the direction of the Virgo cluster, analogous to the enigmatic object SECCO 1 (AGC 226067). These objects were identified based on their optical and UV morphology and followed up with Hiobservations with the Very Large Array (and Green Bank Telescope), Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (on the Very Large Telescope) optical spectroscopy, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These new data indicate that one system is a distant group of galaxies. The remaining four are extremely low mass (M*∼ 105M), are dominated by young blue stars, have highly irregular and clumpy morphologies, are only a few kiloparsecs across, yet host an abundance of metal-rich,12+log(O/H)>8.2, Hiiregions. These high metallicities indicate that these stellar systems formed from gas stripped from much more massive galaxies. Despite the young age of their stellar populations, only one system is detected in Hi, while the remaining three have minimal (if any) gas reservoirs. Furthermore, two systems are surprisingly isolated and have no plausible parent galaxy within ∼30′ (∼140 kpc). Although tidal stripping cannot be conclusively excluded as the formation mechanism of these objects, ram pressure stripping more naturally explains their properties, inmore »particular their isolation, owing to the higher velocities, relative to the parent system, that can be achieved. Therefore, we posit that most of these systems formed from ram-pressure-stripped gas removed from new infalling cluster members and survived in the intracluster medium long enough to become separated from their parent galaxies by hundreds of kiloparsecs and that they thus represent a new type of stellar system.

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  3. Abstract

    The two sources AGC 226178 and NGVS 3543, an extremely faint, clumpy, blue stellar system and a low surface brightness dwarf spheroidal, are adjacent systems in the direction of the Virgo cluster. Both have been studied in detail previously, with it being suggested that they are unrelated normal dwarf galaxies or that NGVS 3543 recently lost its gas through ram pressure stripping and AGC 226178 formed from this stripped gas. However, with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we demonstrate that the stellar population of NGVS 3543 is inconsistent with being at the distance of the Virgo cluster and that it is likely a foreground object at approximately 10 Mpc, whereas the stellar population of AGC 226178 is consistent with it being a very young (10–100 Myr) object in the Virgo cluster. Through a reanalysis of the original ALFALFA Hidetection, we show that AGC 226178 likely formed from gas stripped from the nearby dwarf galaxy VCC 2034, a hypothesis strengthened by the high metallicity measured with MUSE VLT observations. However, it is unclear whether ram pressure or a tidal interaction is responsible for stripping the gas. Object AGC 226178 is one of at least five similar objectsmore »now known toward Virgo. These objects are all young and unlikely to remain visible for over ∼500 Myr, suggesting that they are continually produced in the cluster.

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  5. To understand the larger scale structure of the local Universe (z < 0.06), we require adequate distance assignments and an understanding of their uncertainties. Local departures from smooth Hubble flow introduce large errors in distances derived from CMB velocities alone. For analysis of data from the blind extragalactic HI survey ALFALFA, the ALFALFA distance estimation routine takes advantage of pre-determined redshift-independent distances from the literature - including primary distances measurements such as TRGB or secondary Tully-Fisher measurements, a flow model developed by Masters (2005) and assignments of membership in known groups and clusters. Here we report an update of the previous methodology used for ALFALFA. To reduce the impact of orbital scatter and peculiar motions, a halo-based group-finder algorithm is used to assign a group CMB velocity and corresponding distance to galaxies identified as group/cluster members. We make use of six different group catalogs created using SDSS or 2MRS. For the nearest volume z < 0.02, the multi-attractor flow model is still used to account for local peculiar velocities. The new code, written in Python, is useable on other low-redshift galaxy catalogs, with mutable inputs for which group catalogs are used. We present an analysis of the impact of groupmore »catalog choice. This research has been supported by NSF grant NSF/AST-1714828 to M.P. Haynes and by the Brinson Foundation for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS).« less
  6. ABSTRACT We study the gas kinematics of a sample of six isolated gas-rich low surface brightness galaxies, of the class called ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). These galaxies have recently been shown to be outliers from the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation (BTFR), as they rotate much slower than expected given their baryonic mass, and to have a baryon fraction similar to the cosmological mean. By means of a 3D kinematic modelling fitting technique, we show that the H i in our UDGs is distributed in ‘thin’ regularly rotating discs and we determine their rotation velocity and gas velocity dispersion. We revisit the BTFR adding galaxies from other studies. We find a previously unknown trend between the deviation from the BTFR and the exponential disc scale length valid for dwarf galaxies with circular speeds ≲ 45 km s−1, with our UDGs being at the extreme end. Based on our findings, we suggest that the high baryon fractions of our UDGs may originate due to the fact that they have experienced weak stellar feedback, likely due to their low star formation rate surface densities, and as a result they did not eject significant amounts of gas out of their discs. At the same time, we find indications thatmore »our UDGs may have higher-than-average stellar specific angular momentum, which can explain their large optical scale lengths.« less