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  1. During the last deglaciation, collapse of the saddle between the North American Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets led to rapid ice-sheet mass loss and separation, with meltwater discharge contributing to deglacial sea level rise. We directly date ice-sheet separation at the end of the saddle collapse using 64 10Be exposure ages along an ~1200-km transect of the ice-sheet suture zone. Collapse began in the south by 15.4 ± 0.4 ka and ended by 13.8 ± 0.1 ka at ~56◦N. Ice-sheet model simulations consistent with the 10Be ages find that the saddle collapse contributed 6.2–7.2 m to global mean sea-level rise from ~15.5 ka to ~14.0 ka, or approximately one third of global mean sea-level rise over this period. We determine 3.1–3.6 m of the saddle collapse meltwater was released during Meltwater Pulse 1A ~14.6-14.3 ka, constituting 20–40% of this meltwater pulse’s volume. Because the separation of the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets occurred over 1–2 millennia, the associated release of meltwater during the saddle collapse supplied a smaller contribution to the magnitude of Meltwater Pulse 1A than has been recently proposed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Abstract Pear ( Pyrus spp.) is one of the most consumed fruits in China, but the pear production has to confront the growing threat from fatal diseases. In this study, we report two incidences of stem canker and twig dieback disease on pear plants, which led to death of pear seedlings (approximately 10% of total plants) in Guangxi and Jiangsu provinces. Using a combination of morphological and molecular diagnoses, along with pathogenicity test, the causal agent of the disease in these two locations was identified to be the fungus Neofusicoccum parvum . However, the isolates were divided into two clades: CY-2 isolate and other four isolates including ZL-4, BM-9, BM-10 and BM-12 might split into two groups of N. parvum . Two representative isolates (CY-2 and ZL-4) were selected for further investigation. We observed that the optimal temperature for in vitro infection on pear trees of these two isolates was at round 25 °C. Both CY-2 and ZL-4 could infect different sand pear varieties and other horticultural plants in vitro, while CY-2 had a higher virulence on several pear varieties including Nanyue, Lvyun, Qiushui and Ningmenghuang . Furthermore, the efficacy of fungicides against these two isolates was evaluated, and carbendazim and flusilazole were found to be the most effective fungicides in inhibiting the growth of these fungal pathogens. Taken together, these findings redefine the N. parvum species and provide potential strategies for the future management of this disease. 
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  3. Bragg spectroscopy is used to measure the velocities of spin and charge excitations in a one-dimensional Fermi gas of atomic lithium. 
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  4. Pears ( Pyrus sp.) are widely cultivated in China, and their yield accounts for more than 60% of global pear production. The fungal pathogen Valsa pyri is a major causal agent of pear canker disease, which results in enormous losses of pear production in northern China. In this study, we characterized a Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factor that contains one GAL4 domain and a fungal-trans domain, which are present in VpxlnR. The vpxlnR gene expression was upregulated in the invasion stage of V. pyri . To investigate its functions, we constructed gene deletion mutants and complementary strains. We observed that the growth of the vpxlnR mutants was reduced on potato dextrose agar (PDA), Czapek plus glucose or sucrose compared with that of the wild-type strain. Additionally, vpxlnR mutants exhibited loss of function in fruiting body formation. Moreover, vpxlnR mutants were more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) and were reduced in their virulence at the early infection stage. According to a previous study, VpxlnR-interacting motifs containing NRHKGNCCGM were searched in the V. pyri genome, and we obtained 354 target genes, of which 148 genes had Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) terms. PHI-BLAST was used to identify virulence-related genes, and we found 28 hits. Furthermore, eight genes from the 28 PHI-BLAST hits were further assessed by yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays, and five target genes, salicylate hydroxylase (VP1G_09520), serine/threonine-protein kinase (VP1G_03128), alpha-xylosidase (VP1G_06369), G-protein beta subunit (VP1G_02856), and acid phosphatase (VP1G_03782), could interact with VpxlnR in vivo . Their transcript levels were reduced in one or two vpxlnR mutants. Taken together, these findings imply that VpxlnR is a key regulator of growth, development, stress, and virulence through controlling genes involved in signaling pathways and extracellular enzyme activities in V. pyri . The motifs interacting with VpxlnR also provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of xlnR proteins. 
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