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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Deep-ocean observing is essential for informing policy making in the arenas of climate, biodiversity, fisheries, energy and minerals extraction, pollution, hazards, and genetic resources. The Deep Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS), a UN Ocean Decade endorsed programme, is meeting with representatives from relevant international bodies and agreements to strengthen their interface with the deep-ocean science community, ensure that deep observing is responsive to societal needs, identify points of entry for science in policy making, and to develop relevant products for broad use. DOOS collaboration with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) facilitates this co-design. A DOOS policy liaison team is being formed to link the contacts, voices, and messaging of multiple deep-ocean networks and organizations in reaching international policy makers. The UN Ocean Decade will help to gain the ear of target communities, scale communication channels appropriately, minimize duplicative efforts, maximize limited resources, and organize inclusive and equitable public and private partners in deep-ocean science and policy.

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  4. Abstract. Use of an ocean parameter and state estimation framework – such as the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) framework – could provide an opportunity to learn about the spatial distribution of the diapycnal diffusivity parameter (κρ) that observations alone cannot due to gaps in coverage. However, we show that the inclusion of misfits to observed physical variables – such as in situ temperature, salinity, and pressure – currently accounted for in ECCO is not sufficient, as κρ from ECCO does not agree closely with any observationally derived product. These observationally derived κρ products were inferred from microstructure measurements, derived from Argo and conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) data using a strain-based parameterization of fine-scale hydrographic structure, or calculated from climatological and seafloor data using a parameterization of tidal mixing. The κρ products are in close agreement with one another but have both measurement and structural uncertainties, whereas tracers can have relatively small measurement uncertainties. With the ultimate goal being to jointly improve the ECCO state estimate and representation of κρ in ECCO, we investigate whether adjustments in κρ due to inclusion of misfits to a tracer – dissolved oxygen concentrations from an annual climatology – would be similar to those due to inclusion of misfits to observationally derived κρ products. We do this by performing sensitivity analyses with ECCO. We compare multiple adjoint sensitivity calculations: one configuration uses misfits to observationally derived κρ, and the other uses misfits to observed dissolved oxygen concentrations. We show that adjoint sensitivities of dissolved oxygen concentration misfits to the state estimate's control space typically direct κρ to improve relative to the observationally derived values. These results suggest that the inclusion of oxygen in ECCO's misfits will improve κρ in ECCO, particularly in (sub)tropical regions. 
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  5. Abstract The Deep Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS) is an international, community-driven initiative that facilitates collaboration across disciplines and fields, elevates a diverse cohort of early career researchers into future leaders, and connects scientific advancements to societal needs. DOOS represents a global network of deep-ocean observing, mapping, and modeling experts, focusing community efforts in the support of strong science, policy, and planning for sustainable oceans. Its initiatives work to propose deep-sea Essential Ocean Variables; assess technology development; develop shared best practices, standards, and cross-calibration procedures; and transfer knowledge to policy makers and deep-ocean stakeholders. Several of these efforts align with the vision of the UN Ocean Decade to generate the science we need to create the deep ocean we want. DOOS works toward (1) a healthy and resilient deep ocean by informing science-based conservation actions, including optimizing data delivery, creating habitat and ecological maps of critical areas, and developing regional demonstration projects; (2) a predicted deep ocean by strengthening collaborations within the modeling community, determining needs for interdisciplinary modeling and observing system assessment in the deep ocean; (3) an accessible deep ocean by enhancing open access to innovative low-cost sensors and open-source plans, making deep-ocean data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable, and focusing on capacity development in developing countries; and finally (4) an inspiring and engaging deep ocean by translating science to stakeholders/end users and informing policy and management decisions, including in international waters. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract The lack of continuous spatial and temporal sampling of hydrographic measurements in large parts of the Arctic Ocean remains a major obstacle for quantifying mean state and variability of the Arctic Ocean circulation. This shortcoming motivates an assessment of the utility of Argo-type floats, the challenges of deploying such floats due to the presence of sea ice, and the implications of extended times of no surfacing on hydrographic inferences. Within the framework of an Arctic coupled ocean–sea ice state estimate that is constrained to available satellite and in situ observations, we establish metrics for quantifying the usefulness of such floats. The likelihood of float surfacing strongly correlates with the annual sea ice minimum cover. Within the float lifetime of 4–5 years, surfacing frequency ranges from 10–100 days in seasonally sea ice–covered regions to 1–3 years in multiyear sea ice–covered regions. The longer the float drifts under ice without surfacing, the larger the uncertainty in its position, which translates into larger uncertainties in hydrographic measurements. Below the mixed layer, especially in the western Arctic, normalized errors remain below 1, suggesting that measurements along a path whose only known positions are the beginning and end points can help constrain numerical models and reduce hydrographic uncertainties. The error assessment presented is a first step in the development of quantitative methods for guiding the design of observing networks. These results can and should be used to inform a float network design with suggested locations of float deployment and associated expected hydrographic uncertainties. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    Abstract. We present a new capability of the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS that enables flexible adjoint code generation via source transformation using the open-source algorithmic differentiation (AD) tool OpenAD.The adjoint code enables efficient calculation of the sensitivities of a scalar-valued objective function or quantity of interest (QoI) to a range of important, often spatially varying and uncertain model input variables, including initial and boundary conditions, as well as model parameters.Compared to earlier work on the adjoint code generation of SICOPOLIS, our work makes several important advances:(i) it is embedded within the up-to-date trunk of the SICOPOLIS repository – accounting for 1.5 decades of code development and improvements – and is readily available to the wider community;(ii) the AD tool used, OpenAD, is an open-source tool;(iii) the adjoint code developed is applicable to both Greenland and Antarctica, including grounded ice as well as floating ice shelves, with an extended choice of thermodynamical representations.A number of code refactorization steps were required. They are discussed in detail in an Appendix as they hold lessons for the application of AD to legacy codes at large.As an example application, we examine the sensitivity of the total Antarctic Ice Sheet volume to changes in initial ice thickness, austral summer precipitation, and basal and surface temperatures across the ice sheet.Simulations of Antarctica with floating ice shelves show that over 100 years of simulation the sensitivity of total ice sheet volume to the initial ice thickness and precipitation is almost uniformly positive, while the sensitivities to surface and basal temperature are almost uniformly negative. Sensitivity to austral summer precipitation is largest on floating ice shelves from Queen Maud to Queen Mary Land. The largest sensitivity to initial ice thickness is at outlet glaciers around Antarctica. Comparison between total ice sheet volume sensitivities to surface and basal temperature shows that surface temperature sensitivities are higher broadly across the floating ice shelves, while basal temperature sensitivities are highest at the grounding lines of floating ice shelves and outlet glaciers. A uniformly perturbed region of East Antarctica reveals that, among the four control variables tested here, total ice sheet volume is the most sensitive to variations in austral summer precipitation as formulated in SICOPOLIS.Comparison between adjoint- and finite-difference-derived sensitivities shows good agreement, lending confidence that the AD tool is producing correct adjoint code.The new modeling infrastructure is freely available at (last access: 2 April 2020) under the development trunk. 
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