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Creators/Authors contains: "Hirsch, Candice N"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Crop genomics has seen dramatic advances in recent years due to improvements in sequencing technology, assembly methods, and computational resources. These advances have led to the development of new tools to facilitate crop improvement. The study of structural variation within species and the characterization of the pan-genome has revealed extensive genome content variation among individuals within a species that is paradigm shifting to crop genomics and improvement. Here, we review advances in crop genomics and how utilization of these tools is shifting in light of pan-genomes that are becoming available for many crop species.
  3. Abstract Accessible chromatin and unmethylated DNA are associated with many genes and cis-regulatory elements. Attempts to understand natural variation for accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) and unmethylated regions (UMRs) often rely upon alignments to a single reference genome. This limits the ability to assess regions that are absent in the reference genome assembly and monitor how nearby structural variants influence variation in chromatin state. In this study, de novo genome assemblies for four maize inbreds (B73, Mo17, Oh43, and W22) are utilized to assess chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation patterns in a pan-genome context. A more complete set of UMRs and ACRs can be identified when chromatin data are aligned to the matched genome rather than a single reference genome. While there are UMRs and ACRs present within genomic regions that are not shared between genotypes, these features are 6- to 12-fold enriched within regions between genomes. Characterization of UMRs present within shared genomic regions reveals that most UMRs maintain the unmethylated state in other genotypes with only ∼5% being polymorphic between genotypes. However, the majority (71%) of UMRs that are shared between genotypes only exhibit partial overlaps suggesting that the boundaries between methylated and unmethylated DNA are dynamic. This instabilitymore »is not solely due to sequence variation as these partially overlapping UMRs are frequently found within genomic regions that lack sequence variation. The ability to compare chromatin properties among individuals with structural variation enables pan-epigenome analyses to study the sources of variation for accessible chromatin and unmethylated DNA.« less
  4. Andrews, B J (Ed.)
    Abstract Intact transposable elements (TEs) account for 65% of the maize genome and can impact gene function and regulation. Although TEs comprise the majority of the maize genome and affect important phenotypes, genome-wide patterns of TE polymorphisms in maize have only been studied in a handful of maize genotypes, due to the challenging nature of assessing highly repetitive sequences. We implemented a method to use short-read sequencing data from 509 diverse inbred lines to classify the presence/absence of 445,418 nonredundant TEs that were previously annotated in four genome assemblies including B73, Mo17, PH207, and W22. Different orders of TEs (i.e., LTRs, Helitrons, and TIRs) had different frequency distributions within the population. LTRs with lower LTR similarity were generally more frequent in the population than LTRs with higher LTR similarity, though high-frequency insertions with very high LTR similarity were observed. LTR similarity and frequency estimates of nested elements and the outer elements in which they insert revealed that most nesting events occurred very near the timing of the outer element insertion. TEs within genes were at higher frequency than those that were outside of genes and this is particularly true for those not inserted into introns. Many TE insertional polymorphisms observedmore »in this population were tagged by SNP markers. However, there were also 19.9% of the TE polymorphisms that were not well tagged by SNPs (R2 < 0.5) that potentially represent information that has not been well captured in previous SNP-based marker-trait association studies. This study provides a population scale genome-wide assessment of TE variation in maize and provides valuable insight on variation in TEs in maize and factors that contribute to this variation.« less
  5. Bomblies, K (Ed.)
    Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to create regulatory variation both through the disruption of existing DNA regulatory elements and through the creation of novel DNA regulatory elements. In a species with a large genome, such as maize, many TEs interspersed with genes create opportunities for significant allelic variation due to TE presence/absence polymorphisms among individuals. We used information on putative regulatory elements in combination with knowledge about TE polymorphisms in maize to identify TE insertions that interrupt existing accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) in B73 as well as examples of polymorphic TEs that contain ACRs among four inbred lines of maize including B73, Mo17, W22, and PH207. The TE insertions in three other assembled maize genomes (Mo17, W22, or PH207) that interrupt ACRs that are present in the B73 genome can trigger changes to the chromatin, suggesting the potential for both genetic and epigenetic influences of these insertions. Nearly 20% of the ACRs located over 2 kb from the nearest gene are located within an annotated TE. These are regions of unmethylated DNA that show evidence for functional importance similar to ACRs that are not present within TEs. Using a large panel of maize genotypes, we tested if theremore »is an association between the presence of TE insertions that interrupt, or carry, an ACR and the expression of nearby genes. While most TE polymorphisms are not associated with expression for nearby genes, the TEs that carry ACRs exhibit enrichment for being associated with higher expression of nearby genes, suggesting that these TEs may contribute novel regulatory elements. These analyses highlight the potential for a subset of TEs to rewire transcriptional responses in eukaryotic genomes.« less
  6. Abstract

    The regulation of gene expression is central to many biological processes. Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) link transcription factors (TFs) to their target genes and represent maps of potential transcriptional regulation. Here, we analyzed a large number of publically available maize (Zea mays) transcriptome data sets including >6000 RNA sequencing samples to generate 45 coexpression-based GRNs that represent potential regulatory relationships between TFs and other genes in different populations of samples (cross-tissue, cross-genotype, and tissue-and-genotype samples). While these networks are all enriched for biologically relevant interactions, different networks capture distinct TF-target associations and biological processes. By examining the power of our coexpression-based GRNs to accurately predict covarying TF-target relationships in natural variation data sets, we found that presence/absence changes rather than quantitative changes in TF gene expression are more likely associated with changes in target gene expression. Integrating information from our TF-target predictions and previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping results provided support for 68 TFs underlying 74 previously identified trans-eQTL hotspots spanning a variety of metabolic pathways. This study highlights the utility of developing multiple GRNs within a species to detect putative regulators of important plant pathways and provides potential targets for breeding or biotechnological applications.