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  1. Abstract

    The distribution of spin–orbit angles for systems with wide-separation, tidally detached exoplanets offers a unique constraint on the prevalence of dynamically violent planetary evolution histories. Tidally detached planets provide a relatively unbiased view of the primordial stellar obliquity distribution, as they cannot tidally realign within the system lifetime. We present the third result from our Stellar Obliquities in Long-period Exoplanet Systems (SOLES) survey: a measurement of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect across two transits of the tidally detached warm Jupiter TOI-1478 b with the WIYN/NEID and Keck/HIRES spectrographs, revealing a sky-projected spin–orbit angleλ=6.25.5+5.9°. Combining this new measurement with the full set of archival obliquity measurements, including two previous constraints from the SOLES survey, we demonstrate that, in single-star systems, tidally detached warm Jupiters are preferentially more aligned than closer-orbiting hot Jupiters. This finding has two key implications: (1) planets in single-star systems tend to form within aligned protoplanetary disks, and (2) warm Jupiters form more quiescently than hot Jupiters, which, in single-star systems, are likely perturbed into a misaligned state through planet–planet interactions in the post-disk-dispersal phase. We also find that lower-mass Saturns span a wide range of spin–orbit angles, suggesting a prevalence of planet–planet scattering and/or secularmore »mechanisms in these systems.

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  2. Abstract

    TOI-2076 b is a sub-Neptune-sized planet (R= 2.39 ± 0.10R) that transits a young (204 ± 50 MYr) bright (V= 9.2) K-dwarf hosting a system of three transiting planets. Using spectroscopic observations obtained with the NEID spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope, we model the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect of TOI-2076 b, and derive a sky-projected obliquity ofλ=315+16°. Using the size of the star (R= 0.775 ± 0.015R), and the stellar rotation period (Prot= 7.27 ± 0.23 days), we estimate an obliquity ofψ=189+10°(ψ< 34° at 95% confidence), demonstrating that TOI-2076 b is in a well-aligned orbit. Simultaneous diffuser-assisted photometry from the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory rules out flares during the transit. TOI-2076 b joins a small but growing sample of young planets in compact multi-planet systems with well-aligned orbits, and is the fourth planet with an age ≲300 Myr in a multi-transiting system with an obliquity measurement. The low obliquity of TOI-2076 b and the presence of transit timing variations in the system suggest the TOI-2076 system likely formed via convergent disk migration in an initially well-aligned disk.

  3. Abstract

    We present the Distant Giants Survey, a three-year radial velocity campaign to measure P(DG∣CS), the conditional occurrence of distant giant planets (DG;Mp∼ 0.3–13MJ,P> 1 yr) in systems hosting a close-in small planet (CS;Rp< 10R). For the past two years, we have monitored 47 Sun-like stars hosting small transiting planets detected by TESS. We present the selection criteria used to assemble our sample and report the discovery of two distant giant planets, TOI-1669 b and TOI-1694 c. For TOI-1669 b we find thatMsini=0.573±0.074MJ,P= 502 ± 16 days, ande< 0.27, while for TOI-1694 c,Msini=1.05±0.05MJ,P= 389.2 ± 3.9 days, ande= 0.18 ± 0.05. We also confirmed the 3.8 days transiting planet TOI-1694 b by measuring a true mass ofM= 26.1 ± 2.2M. At the end of the Distant Giants Survey, we will incorporate TOI-1669 b and TOI-1694 c into our calculation of P(DG∣CS), a crucial statistic for understanding the relationship between outer giants and small inner companions.

  4. Abstract

    We detail the follow-up and characterization of a transiting exo-Venus identified by TESS, GJ 3929b (TOI-2013b), and its nontransiting companion planet, GJ 3929c (TOI-2013c). GJ 3929b is an Earth-sized exoplanet in its star’s Venus zone (Pb= 2.616272 ± 0.000005 days; Sb=17.30.7+0.8S) orbiting a nearby M dwarf. GJ 3929c is most likely a nontransiting sub-Neptune. Using the new, ultraprecise NEID spectrometer on the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, we are able to modify the mass constraints of planet b reported in previous works and consequently improve the significance of the mass measurement to almost 4σconfidence (Mb= 1.75 ± 0.45M). We further adjust the orbital period of planet c from its alias at 14.30 ± 0.03 days to the likely true period of 15.04 ± 0.03 days, and we adjust its minimum mass tomsini= 5.71 ± 0.92M. Using the diffuser-assisted ARCTIC imager on the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, in addition to publicly available TESS and LCOGT photometry, we are able to constrain the radius of planet b toRp= 1.09 ± 0.04R. GJ 3929b is a top candidate for transmission spectroscopy in its size regime (TSM = 14more »± 4), and future atmospheric studies of GJ 3929b stand to shed light on the nature of small planets orbiting M dwarfs.

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  5. Abstract

    We present the validation of two planets orbiting M dwarfs, TOI-1696b and TOI-2136b. Both planets are mini-Neptunes orbiting nearby stars, making them promising prospects for atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We validated the planetary nature of both candidates using high-contrast imaging, ground-based photometry, and near-infrared radial velocities. Adaptive optics images were taken using the ShARCS camera on the 3 m Shane Telescope. Speckle images were taken using the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. Radii and orbital ephemerides were refined using a combination of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, the diffuser-assisted Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) Telescope Imaging Camera (ARCTIC) imager on the 3.5 m ARC telescope at Apache Point Observatory, and the 0.6 m telescope at Red Buttes Observatory. We obtained radial velocities using the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder on the 10 m Hobby–Eberly Telescope, which enabled us to place upper limits on the masses of both transiting planets. TOI-1696b (P= 2.5 days;Rp= 3.24R;Mp< 56.6M) falls into a sparsely populated region of parameter space considering its host star’s temperature (Teff= 3168 K, M4.5), as planets of its size are quite rare around mid- to late-M dwarfs. On the other hand, TOI-2136bmore »(P= 7.85 days;Rp= 2.09R;Mp< 15.0M) is an excellent candidate for atmospheric follow-up with the JWST.

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  6. Abstract

    Exoplanet systems with multiple transiting planets are natural laboratories for testing planetary astrophysics. One such system is HD 191939 (TOI 1339), a bright (V= 9) and Sun-like (G9V) star, which TESS found to host three transiting planets (b, c, and d). The planets have periods of 9, 29, and 38 days each with similar sizes from 3 to 3.4R. To further characterize the system, we measured the radial velocity (RV) of HD 191939 over 415 days with Keck/HIRES and APF/Levy. We find thatMb= 10.4 ± 0.9MandMc= 7.2 ± 1.4M, which are low compared to most known planets of comparable radii. The RVs yield only an upper limit onMd(<5.8Mat 2σ). The RVs further reveal a fourth planet (e) with a minimum mass of 0.34 ± 0.01MJupand an orbital period of 101.4 ± 0.4 days. Despite its nontransiting geometry, secular interactions between planet e and the inner transiting planets indicate that planet e is coplanar with the transiting planets (Δi< 10°). We identify a second high-mass planet (f) with 95% confidence intervals on mass between 2 and 11MJupand period between 1700 and 7200 days, based on a joint analysis of RVs and astrometry from Gaia and Hipparcos. As a bright starmore »hosting multiple planets with well-measured masses, HD 191939 presents many options for comparative planetary astronomy, including characterization with JWST.

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