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  1. Abstract

    We present a series of high-resolution echelle spectra of SN 2023ixf in M101, obtained nightly during the first week or so after discovery using PEPSI on the Large Binocular Telescope. NaiD absorption in these spectra indicates a host reddening ofE(BV) = 0.031 mag and a systemic velocity of +7 km s−1relative to the average redshift of M101. Dramatic changes are seen in the strength and shape of strong emission lines emitted by circumstellar material (CSM), including Heiiλ4686, Civλλ5801,5811, Hα, and Nivλλ7109,7123. In general, these narrow lines broaden to become intermediate-width lines before disappearing from the spectrum within a few days, indicating a limited extent to the dense CSM of around 20–30 au (or ≲1014.7cm). Hαpersists in the spectrum for about a week as an intermediate-width emission line with P Cyg absorption at 700–1300 km s−1arising in the post-shock shell of swept-up CSM. Early narrow emission lines are blueshifted and indicate an expansion speed in the pre-shock CSM of about 115 km s−1, but with even broader emission in higher-ionization lines. This is faster than the normal winds of red supergiants, suggesting some mode of eruptive mass loss from the progenitor or radiative acceleration of the CSM. A lack of narrow blueshifted absorption suggests that most of the CSM is not along our line of sight. This and several other clues indicate that the CSM of SN 2023ixf is significantly aspherical. We find that CSM lines disappear after a few days because the asymmetric CSM is engulfed by the supernova photosphere.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    In 2019 November, we began operating Finding Luminous and Exotic Extragalactic Transients (FLEET), a machine-learning algorithm designed to photometrically identify Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in transient alert streams. Through this observational campaign, we spectroscopically classified 21 of the 50 SLSNe identified worldwide between 2019 November and 2022 January. Based on our original algorithm, we anticipated that FLEET would achieve a purity of about 50% for transients with a probability of being an SLSN,P(SLSN-I) > 0.5; the true on-sky purity we obtained is closer to 80%. Similarly, we anticipated FLEET could reach a completeness of about 30%, and we indeed measure an upper limit on the completeness of ≲33%. Here we present FLEET 2.0, an updated version of FLEET trained on 4780 transients (almost three times more than FLEET 1.0). FLEET 2.0 has a similar predicted purity to FLEET 1.0 but outperforms FLEET 1.0 in terms of completeness, which is now closer to ≈40% for transients withP(SLSN-I) > 0.5. Additionally, we explore the possible systematics that might arise from the use of FLEET for target selection. We find that the population of SLSNe recovered by FLEET is mostly indistinguishable from the overall SLSN population in terms of physical and most observational parameters. We provide FLEET as an open source package on GitHub:

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  3. Abstract

    We present the discovery of the Type II supernova SN 2023ixf in M101 and follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, respectively, in the first month and week of its evolution. Our discovery was made within a day of estimated first light, and the following light curve is characterized by a rapid rise (≈5 days) to a luminous peak (MV≈ − 18.2 mag) and plateau (MV≈ − 17.6 mag) extending to 30 days with a fast decline rate of ≈0.03 mag day−1. During the rising phase,UVcolor shows blueward evolution, followed by redward evolution in the plateau phase. Prominent flash features of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and nitrogen dominate the spectra up to ≈5 days after first light, with a transition to a higher ionization state in the first ≈2 days. Both theUVcolor and flash ionization states suggest a rise in the temperature, indicative of a delayed shock breakout inside dense circumstellar material (CSM). From the timescales of CSM interaction, we estimate its compact radial extent of ∼(3–7) × 1014cm. We then construct numerical light-curve models based on both continuous and eruptive mass-loss scenarios shortly before explosion. For the continuous mass-loss scenario, we infer a range of mass-loss history with 0.1–1.0Myr−1in the final 2−1 yr before explosion, with a potentially decreasing mass loss of 0.01–0.1Myr−1in ∼0.7–0.4 yr toward the explosion. For the eruptive mass-loss scenario, we favor eruptions releasing 0.3–1Mof the envelope at about a year before explosion, which result in CSM with mass and extent similar to the continuous scenario. We discuss the implications of the available multiwavelength constraints obtained thus far on the progenitor candidate and SN 2023ixf to our variable CSM models.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We perform a comprehensive search for optical precursor emission at the position of SN 2023ixf using data from the DLT40, ZTF, and ATLAS surveys. By comparing the current data set with precursor outburst hydrodynamical model light curves, we find that the probability of a significant outburst within 5 yr of explosion is low, and the circumstellar material (CSM) ejected during any possible precursor outburst is likely smaller than ∼0.015M. By comparing to a set of toy models, we find that, if there was a precursor outburst, the duration must have been shorter than ∼100 days for a typical brightness ofMr≃ −9 mag or shorter than 200 days forMr≃ −8 mag; brighter, longer outbursts would have been discovered. Precursor activity like that observed in the normal Type II SN 2020tlf (Mr≃ −11.5) can be excluded in SN 2023ixf. If the dense CSM inferred by early flash spectroscopy and other studies is related to one or more precursor outbursts, then our observations indicate that any such outburst would have to be faint and only last for days to months, or it occurred more than 5 yr prior to the explosion. Alternatively, any dense, confined CSM may not be due to eruptive mass loss from a single red supergiant progenitor. Taken together, the results of SN 2023ixf and SN 2020tlf indicate that there may be more than one physical mechanism behind the dense CSM inferred around some normal Type II supernovae.

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  5. We present a comparative study of two nearby type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), 2018xx and 2019gbx, that exploded in NGC 4767 and MCG-02-33-017 at a distance of 48 Mpc and 60 Mpc, respectively. The B -band light curve decline rate for SN 2018xx is estimated to be 1.48 ± 0.07 mag and for SN 2019gbx it is 1.37 ± 0.07 mag. Despite the similarities in photometric evolution, quasi-bolometric luminosity, and spectroscopy between these two SNe Ia, SN 2018xx has been found to be fainter by about ∼0.38 mag in the B -band and has a lower 56 Ni yield. Their host galaxies have similar metallicities at the SN location, indicating that the differences between these two SNe Ia may be associated with the higher progenitor metallicity of SN 2018xx. Further inspection of the near-maximum-light spectra has revealed that SN 2018xx has relatively strong absorption features near 4300 Å relative to SN 2019gbx. The application of the code TARDIS fitting to the above features indicates that the absorption features near 4300 Å appear to be related to not only Fe  II /Mg  II abundance but possibly to the other element abundances as well. Moreover, SN 2018xx shows a weaker carbon absorption at earlier times, which is also consistent with higher ejecta metallicity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae can be divided into two broad classes: the common Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe Ib/c), powered by the radioactive decay of56Ni, and the rare superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), most likely powered by the spin-down of a magnetar central engine. Up to now, the intermediate regime between these two populations has remained mostly unexplored. Here, we present a comprehensive study of 40luminous supernovae(LSNe), SNe with peak magnitudes ofMr= −19 to −20 mag, bound by SLSNe on the bright end and by SNe Ib/c on the dim end. Spectroscopically, LSNe appear to form a continuum between Type Ic SNe and SLSNe. Given their intermediate nature, we model the light curves of all LSNe using a combined magnetar plus radioactive decay model and find that they are indeed intermediate, not only in terms of their peak luminosity and spectra, but also in their rise times, power sources, and physical parameters. We subclassify LSNe into distinct groups that are either as fast evolving as SNe Ib/c or as slow evolving as SLSNe, and appear to be either radioactively or magnetar powered, respectively. Our findings indicate that LSNe are powered by either an overabundant production of56Ni or by weak magnetar engines, and may serve as the missing link between the two populations.

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  7. Abstract

    The optical-ultraviolet transient AT 2021loi is located at the center of its host galaxy. Its spectral features identify it as a member of the Bowen fluorescence flare (BFF) class. The first member of this class was considered to be related to a tidal disruption event, but enhanced accretion onto an already active supermassive black hole was suggested as an alternative explanation. Having occurred in a previously known unobscured active galactic nucleus, AT 2021loi strengthens the latter interpretation. Its light curve is similar to those of previous BFFs, showing a rebrightening approximately 1 yr after the main peak (which was not explicitly identified but might be the case in all previous BFFs). An emission feature around 4680 Å, seen in the preflare spectrum, strengthens by a factor of ∼2 around the optical peak of the flare and is clearly seen as a double-peaked feature then, suggesting a blend of Niiiλ4640 with Heiiλ4686 as its origin. The appearance of Oiiiλ3133 and possible Niiiλλ4097, 4103 (blended with Hδ) during the flare further support a Bowen fluorescence classification. Here we present ZTF, ATLAS, Keck, Las Cumbres Observatory, NEOWISE-R, Swift AMI, and Very Large Array observations of AT 2021loi, making it one of the best-observed BFFs to date. It thus provides some clarity on the nature of BFFs but also further demonstrates the diversity of nuclear transients.

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  8. Abstract

    We present high-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2023axu, a classical Type II supernova with an absoluteV-band peak magnitude of –17.2 ± 0.1 mag. SN 2023axu was discovered by the Distance Less Than 40 Mpc (DLT40) survey within 1 day of the last nondetection in the nearby galaxy NGC 2283 at 13.7 Mpc. We modeled the early light curve using a recently updated shock cooling model that includes the effects of line blanketing and found the explosion epoch to be MJD 59971.48 ± 0.03 and the probable progenitor to be a red supergiant. The shock cooling model underpredicts the overall UV data, which point to a possible interaction with circumstellar material. This interpretation is further supported by spectral behavior. We see a ledge feature around 4600 Å in the very early spectra (+1.1 and +1.5 days after the explosion), which can be a sign of circumstellar interaction. The signs of circumstellar material are further bolstered by the presence of absorption features blueward of Hαand Hβat day >40, which is also generally attributed to circumstellar interaction. Our analysis shows the need for high-cadence early photometric and spectroscopic data to decipher the mass-loss history of the progenitor.

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  9. Abstract

    With the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), it is expected that only ∼0.1% of all transients will be classified spectroscopically. To conduct studies of rare transients, such as Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), we must instead rely on photometric classification. In this vein, here we carry out a pilot study of SLSNe from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1-MDS), classified photometrically with ourSuperRAENNandSuperphotalgorithms. We first construct a subsample of the photometric sample using a list of simple selection metrics designed to minimize contamination and ensure sufficient data quality for modeling. We then fit the multiband light curves with a magnetar spin-down model using the Modular Open-Source Fitter for Transients (MOSFiT). Comparing the magnetar engine and ejecta parameter distributions of the photometric sample to those of the PS1-MDS spectroscopic sample and a larger literature spectroscopic sample, we find that these samples are consistent overall, but that the photometric sample extends to slower spins and lower ejecta masses, which correspond to lower-luminosity events, as expected for photometric selection. While our PS1-MDS photometric sample is still smaller than the overall SLSN spectroscopic sample, our methodology paves the way for an orders-of-magnitude increase in the SLSN sample in the LSST era through photometric selection and study.

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  10. Abstract

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a rare class of stellar explosions whose progenitor systems are not yet well determined. We present and analyze observations of the Type Ibn SN 2019kbj, and model its light curve in order to constrain its progenitor and explosion parameters. SN 2019kbj shows roughly constant temperature during the first month after peak, indicating a power source (likely circumstellar material interaction) that keeps the continuum emission hot at ∼15,000 K. Indeed, we find that the radioactive decay of56Ni is disfavored as the sole power source of the bolometric light curve. A radioactive decay + circumstellar material (CSM) interaction model, on the other hand, does reproduce the bolometric emission well. The fits prefer a uniform-density CSM shell rather than CSM due to a steady mass-loss wind, similar to what is seen in other Type Ibn SNe. The uniform-density CSM shell model requires ∼0.1Mof56Ni and ∼1Mtotal ejecta mass to reproduce the light curve. SN 2019kbj differs in this manner from another Type Ibn SN with derived physical parameters, SN 2019uo, for which an order of magnitude lower56Ni mass and larger ejecta mass were derived. This points toward a possible diversity in SN Ibn progenitor systems and explosions.

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