skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Hu, Xiao"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Nanozymes with intrinsic enzyme-like properties and excellent stability are promising alternatives to natural enzymes. Yet, their low density of active sites and unclear crystal structure have been the major obstacles that impede their progress. Single-atom nanozymes (SAzymes) have emerged as a unique system to mitigate these issues, due to maximal atomic utilization, well-defined electronic and geometric structures, and outstanding catalytic activity distinct from their nanosized counterparts. Furthermore, the homogeneously dispersed active sites and well-defined coordination structures provide rare pathways to shed light on the catalytic mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in the rational design and engineering of SAzymes and their applications in biomedicine and biosensing. We then conclude the review with highlights of the remaining challenges and perspectives of this emerging technology.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2024

    Recent high angular resolution ALMA observations have revealed numerous gaps in protoplanetary discs. A popular interpretation has been that planets open them. Most previous investigations of planet gap-opening have concentrated on viscous discs. Here, we carry out 2D (axisymmetric) global simulations of gap opening by a planet in a wind-launching non-ideal MHD disc with consistent thermochemistry. We find a strong concentration of poloidal magnetic flux in the planet-opened gap, where the gas dynamics are magnetically dominated. The magnetic field also drives a fast (nearly sonic) meridional gas circulation in the denser disc regions near the inner and outer edges of the gap, which may be observable through high-resolution molecular line observations. The gap is more ionized than its denser surrounding regions, with a better magnetic field–matter coupling. In particular, it has a much higher abundance of molecular ion HCO+, consistent with ALMA observations of the well-studied AS 209 protoplanetary disc that has prominent gaps and fast meridional motions reaching the local sound speed. Finally, we provide fitting formulae for the ambipolar and Ohmic diffusivities as a function of the disc local density, which can be used for future 3D simulations of planet gap-opening in non-ideal MHD discs where thermochemistrymore »is too computationally expensive to evolve self-consistently with the magneto-hydrodynamics.

    « less
  3. Abstract The magnitude of water vapor content within the near-storm inflow can either support or deter the storm’s upscale growth and maintenance. However, the heterogeneity of the moisture field near storms remains poorly understood because the operational observation network lacks detail. This observational study illustrates that near-storm inflow water vapor environments are both significantly heterogeneous and different than the far-inflow storm environment. This study also depicts the importance of temporal variation of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) to instability during the peak tornadic seasons in the U.S. Southeast and Great Plains regions during the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment Southeast 2018 (VSE18) campaign and the Targeted Observation by Radar and UAS of Supercells (TORUS) campaign, respectively. VSE18 results suggest that the surface processes control WVMR variation significantly in lower levels, with the highest WVMR mainly located near the surface in inflows in the southeast region. In contrast, TORUS results show more vertically homogeneous WVMR profiles and rather uniform water vapor distribution variation occurring in deep, moist stratified inflows in the Great Plains region. Temporal water vapor variations within 5-min periods could lead to over 1000 J kg −1 CAPE changes in both VSE18 and TORUS, whichmore »represent significant potential buoyancy perturbations for storms to intensify or decay. These temporal water vapor and instability evolutions of moving storms remain difficult to capture via radiosondes and fixed in situ or profiling instrumentation, yet may exert a strong impact on storm evolution. This study suggests that improving observations of the variability of near-storm inflow moisture can accurately refine a potential severe weather threat. Significance Statement It has long been recognized that better observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) inflow near convective storms are needed to improve severe weather forecasting. The current operational networks essentially do not provide profile measurements of the PBL, except for the sparsely spaced 12-hourly sounding network. More frequent geostationary satellite observations do not provide adequately high vertical resolution in the PBL. This study uses airborne lidar profiler measurements to examine moisture in the inflow region of convective storms in the Great Plains and the southeastern United States during their respective tornadic seasons. Rapid PBL water vapor variations on a ∼5 min time scale can lead to CAPE perturbations exceeding 1000 J kg −1 , representing significant perturbations that could promote storm intensification or decay. Severe thunderstorms may generate high-impact weather phenomena, such as tornadoes, high winds, hail, and heavy rainfall, which have substantial socioeconomic impacts. Ultimately, by contrasting characteristics of the convective storm inflow in the two regions, this study may lead to a more accurate assessment of severe weather threats.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  6. Abstract Motivation

    Advances in sequencing technologies have led to a surge in genomic data, although the functions of many gene products coded by these genes remain unknown. While in-depth, targeted experiments that determine the functions of these gene products are crucial and routinely performed, they fail to keep up with the inflow of novel genomic data. In an attempt to address this gap, high-throughput experiments are being conducted in which a large number of genes are investigated in a single study. The annotations generated as a result of these experiments are generally biased towards a small subset of less informative Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Identifying and removing biases from protein function annotation databases is important since biases impact our understanding of protein function by providing a poor picture of the annotation landscape. Additionally, as machine learning methods for predicting protein function are becoming increasingly prevalent, it is essential that they are trained on unbiased datasets. Therefore, it is not only crucial to be aware of biases, but also to judiciously remove them from annotation datasets.


    We introduce GOThresher, a Python tool that identifies and removes biases in function annotations from protein function annotation databases.

    Availability and implementation

    GOThresher is written in Pythonmore »and released via PyPI and on the Bioconda Anaconda channel The source code is hosted on GitHub and distributed under the GPL 3.0 license.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    « less
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023