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  1. The imaging performance of tomographic deconvolution phase microscopy can be described in terms of the phase optical transfer function (POTF) which, in turn, depends on the illumination profile. To facilitate the optimization of the illumination profile, an analytical calculation method based on polynomial fitting is developed to describe the POTF for general nonuniform axially symmetric illumination. This is then applied to Gaussian and related profiles. Compared to numerical integration methods that integrate over a series of annuli, the present analytical method is much faster and is equally accurate. Further, a “balanced distribution” criterion for the POTF and a least-squares minimization are presented to optimize the uniformity of the POTF. An optimum general profile is found analytically by relaxed optimal search, and an optimum Gaussian profile is found through a tree search. Numerical simulations confirm the performance of these optimum profiles and support the balanced distribution criterion introduced.

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    This paper considers a class of linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) mean-field games (MFGs) with partial observation structure for individual agents. Unlike other literature, there are some special features in our formulation. First, the individual state is driven by some common-noise due to the external factor and the state-average thus becomes a random process instead of a deterministic quantity. Second, the sensor function of individual observation depends on state-average thus the agents are coupled in triple manner: not only in their states and cost functionals, but also through their observation mechanism. The decentralized strategies for individual agents are derived by the Kalman filtering and separation principle. The consistency condition is obtained which is equivalent to the wellposedness of some forward-backward stochastic differential equation (FBSDE) driven by common noise. Finally, the related ϵ-Nash equilibrium property is verified. 
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  5. Three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging (3D QPI) is widely recognized as a potentially high-impact microscopic modality. Central to determining the resolution capability of 3D QPI is the phase optical transfer function (POTF). The magnitude of the POTF over its spatial frequency coverage (SFC) specifies the intensity of the response for each allowed spatial frequency. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the POTF for an axially symmetric optical configuration is presented. First, a useful geometric interpretation of the SFC, which enables its visualization, is presented. Second, a closed-form 1D integral expression is derived for the POTF in the general nonparaxial case, which enables rapid calculation of the POTF. Third, this formulation is applied to disk, annular, multi-annuli, and Gaussian illuminations as well as to an annular objective. Taken together, these contributions enable the visualization and simplified calculation of the 3D axially symmetric POTF and provide a basis for optimizing QPI in a wide range of applications.

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