Image security is becoming an increasingly important issue due to advances in deep learning based image manipulations, such as deep image inpainting and deepfakes. There has been considerable work to date on detecting such image manipulations using improved algorithms, with little attention paid to the possible role that hardware advances may have for improving security. We propose to use a focal stack camera as a novel secure imaging device, to the best of our knowledge, that facilitates localizing modified regions in manipulated images. We show that applying convolutional neural network detection methods to focal stack images achieves significantly better detection accuracy compared to single image based forgery detection. This work demonstrates that focal stack images could be used as a novel secure image file format and opens up a new direction for secure imaging.
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Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2023
Recent years have seen the rapid growth of new approaches to optical imaging, with an emphasis on extracting three-dimensional (3D) information from what is normally a two-dimensional (2D) image capture. Perhaps most importantly, the rise of computational imaging enables both new physical layouts of optical components and new algorithms to be implemented. This paper concerns the convergence of two advances: the development of a transparent focal stack imaging system using graphene photodetector arrays, and the rapid expansion of the capabilities of machine learning including the development of powerful neural networks. This paper demonstrates 3D tracking of point-like objects with multilayer feedforward neural networks and the extension to tracking positions of multi-point objects. Computer simulations further demonstrate how this optical system can track extended objects in 3D, highlighting the promise of combining nanophotonic devices, new optical system designs, and machine learning for new frontiers in 3D imaging.
Iterative neural networks (INN) are rapidly gaining attention for solving inverse problems in imaging, image processing, and computer vision. INNs combine regression NNs and an iterative model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, often leading to both good generalization capability and outperforming reconstruction quality over existing MBIR optimization models. This paper proposes the first fast and convergent INN architecture, Momentum-Net, by generalizing a block-wise MBIR algorithm that uses momentum and majorizers with regression NNs. For fast MBIR, Momentum-Net uses momentum terms in extrapolation modules, and noniterative MBIR modules at each iteration by using majorizers, where each iteration of Momentum-Net consists of three core modules: image refining, extrapolation, and MBIR. Momentum-Net guarantees convergence to a fixed-point for general differentiable (non)convex MBIR functions (or data-fit terms) and convex feasible sets, under two asymptomatic conditions. To consider data-fit variations across training and testing samples, we also propose a regularization parameter selection scheme based on the “spectral spread” of majorization matrices. Numerical experiments for light-field photography using a focal stack and sparse-view computational tomography demonstrate that, given identical regression NN architectures, Momentum-Net significantly improves MBIR speed and accuracy over several existing INNs; it significantly improves reconstruction quality compared to a state-of-the-art MBIR method in each application