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  1. Abstract. Glyoxal (CHOCHO), the simplest dicarbonyl in thetroposphere, is a potential precursor for secondary organic aerosol (SOA)and brown carbon (BrC) affecting air quality and climate. The airbornemeasurement of CHOCHO concentrations during the KORUS-AQ (KORea–US AirQuality study) campaign in 2016 enables detailed quantification of lossmechanisms pertaining to SOA formation in the real atmosphere. Theproduction of this molecule was mainly from oxidation of aromatics (59 %)initiated by hydroxyl radical (OH). CHOCHO loss to aerosol was found to bethe most important removal path (69 %) and contributed to roughly∼ 20 % (3.7 µg sm−3 ppmv−1 h−1,normalized with excess CO) of SOA growth in the first 6 h in SeoulMetropolitan Area. A reactive uptake coefficient (γ) of∼ 0.008 best represents the loss of CHOCHO by surface uptakeduring the campaign. To our knowledge, we show the first field observationof aerosol surface-area-dependent (Asurf) CHOCHO uptake, which divergesfrom the simple surface uptake assumption as Asurf increases in ambientcondition. Specifically, under the low (high) aerosol loading, the CHOCHOeffective uptake rate coefficient, keff,uptake, linearly increases(levels off) with Asurf; thus, the irreversible surface uptake is areasonable (unreasonable) approximation for simulating CHOCHO loss toaerosol. Dependence on photochemical impact and changes in the chemical andphysical aerosol properties “free water”, as well as aerosol viscosity,are discussed as other possible factors influencing CHOCHO uptakemore »rate. Ourinferred Henry's law coefficient of CHOCHO, 7.0×108 M atm−1, is ∼ 2 orders of magnitude higher than thoseestimated from salting-in effects constrained by inorganic salts onlyconsistent with laboratory findings that show similar high partitioning intowater-soluble organics, which urges more understanding on CHOCHO solubilityunder real atmospheric conditions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract. We present an updated mechanism for tropospheric halogen (Cl + Br + I) chemistry in the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transportmodel and apply it to investigate halogen radical cycling and implications for tropospheric oxidants. Improved representation of HOBr heterogeneouschemistry and its pH dependence in our simulation leads to less efficient recycling and mobilization of bromine radicals and enables the model toinclude mechanistic sea salt aerosol debromination without generating excessive BrO. The resulting global mean tropospheric BrO mixingratio is 0.19 ppt (parts per trillion), lower than previous versions of GEOS-Chem. Model BrO shows variable consistency and biases in comparison tosurface and aircraft observations in marine air, which are often near or below the detection limit. The model underestimates the daytimemeasurements of Cl2 and BrCl from the ATom aircraft campaign over the Pacific and Atlantic, which if correct would imply a very largemissing primary source of chlorine radicals. Model IO is highest in the marine boundary layer and uniform in the free troposphere, with a globalmean tropospheric mixing ratio of 0.08 ppt, and shows consistency with surface and aircraft observations. The modeled global meantropospheric concentration of Cl atoms is 630 cm−3, contributing 0.8 % of the global oxidation of methane, 14 % of ethane,8 % of propane, and 7 % of highermore »alkanes. Halogen chemistry decreases the global tropospheric burden of ozone by 11 %,NOx by 6 %, and OH by 4 %. Most of the ozone decrease is driven by iodine-catalyzed loss. The resulting GEOS-Chem ozonesimulation is unbiased in the Southern Hemisphere but too low in the Northern Hemisphere.« less
  3. Abstract. A new ion source (IS) utilizing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is developed and characterized for use with iodide–chemical ionization massspectrometers (I−-CIMS). The VUV-IS utilizes a compact krypton lamp that emits light at two wavelengths corresponding to energies of∼10.030 and 10.641 eV. The VUV light photoionizes either methyl iodide (ionization potential, IP = 9.54 ± 0.02 eV)or benzene (IP = 9.24378 ± 0.00007 eV) to form cations and photoelectrons. The electrons react with methyl iodide to formI−, which serves as the reagent ion for the CIMS. The VUV-IS is characterized by measuring the sensitivity of a quadrupole CIMS (Q-CIMS) toformic acid, molecular chlorine, and nitryl chloride under a variety of flow and pressure conditions. The sensitivity of the Q-CIMS, with theVUV-IS, reached up to ∼700 Hz pptv−1, with detection limits of less than 1 pptv for a 1 min integration period. Thereliability of the Q-CIMS with a VUV-IS is demonstrated with data from a month-long ground-based field campaign. The VUV-IS is further tested byoperation on a high-resolution time-of-flight CIMS (TOF-CIMS). Sensitivities greater than 25 Hz pptv−1 were obtained for formic acid andmolecular chlorine, which were similar to that obtained with a radioactive source. In addition, the mass spectra from sampling ambient air wascleaner with the VUV-IS on the TOF-CIMS compared to measurements using a radioactive source. These results demonstrate that the VUV lamp is a viablesubstitute for radioactivemore »ion sources on I−-CIMS systems for most applications. In addition, initial tests demonstrate that the VUV-IS canbe extended to other reagent ions by the use of VUV absorbers with low IPs to serve as a source of photoelectrons for high IP electron attachers,such as SF6-.« less
  4. Abstract. Bromine radicals influence global tropospheric chemistryby depleting ozone and by oxidizing elemental mercury and reduced sulfurspecies. Observations typically indicate a 50 % depletion of sea saltaerosol (SSA) bromide relative to seawater composition, implying that SSAdebromination could be the dominant global source of tropospheric bromine.However, it has been difficult to reconcile this large source with therelatively low bromine monoxide (BrO) mixing ratios observed in the marineboundary layer (MBL). Here we present a new mechanistic description of SSAdebromination in the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry model with adetailed representation of halogen (Cl, Br, and I) chemistry. We show thatobserved levels of SSA debromination can be reproduced in a mannerconsistent with observed BrO mixing ratios. Bromine radical sinks from theHOBr + S(IV) heterogeneous reactions and from ocean emission ofacetaldehyde are critical in moderating tropospheric BrO levels. Theresulting HBr is rapidly taken up by SSA and also deposited. Observations of SSA debromination at southern midlatitudes in summer suggest that modeluptake of HBr by SSA may be too fast. The model provides a successfulsimulation of free-tropospheric BrO in the tropics and midlatitudes in summer,where the bromine radical sink from the HOBr + S(IV) reactions iscompensated for by more efficient HOBr-driven recycling in clouds comparedmore »toprevious GEOS-Chem versions. Simulated BrO in the MBL is generally muchhigher in winter than in summer due to a combination of greater SSA emissionand slower conversion of bromine radicals to HBr. An outstanding issue inthe model is the overestimate of free-tropospheric BrO in extratropicalwinter–spring, possibly reflecting an overestimate of the HOBr∕HBr ratiounder these conditions where the dominant HOBr source is hydrolysis ofBrNO3.

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