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MSH1-induced heritable enhanced growth vigor through grafting is associated with the RdDM pathway in plantsAbstract Plants transmit signals long distances, as evidenced in grafting experiments that create distinct rootstock-scion junctions. Noncoding small RNA is a signaling molecule that is graft transmissible, participating in RNA-directed DNA methylation; but the meiotic transmissibility of graft-mediated epigenetic changes remains unclear. Here, we exploit the MSH1 system in Arabidopsis and tomato to introduce rootstock epigenetic variation to grafting experiments. Introducing mutations dcl2 , dcl3 and dcl4 to the msh1 rootstock disrupts siRNA production and reveals RdDM targets of methylation repatterning. Progeny from grafting experiments show enhanced growth vigor relative to controls. This heritable enhancement-through-grafting phenotype is RdDM-dependent, involving 1380 differentially methylated genes, many within auxin-related gene pathways. Growth vigor is associated with robust root growth of msh1 graft progeny, a phenotype associated with auxin transport based on inhibitor assays. Large-scale field experiments show msh1 grafting effects on tomato plant performance, heritable over five generations, demonstrating the agricultural potential of epigenetic variation.
Abstract In this paper, we present a review of how the various aspects of any study using an eye tracker (such as the instrument, methodology, environment, participant, etc.) affect the quality of the recorded eye-tracking data and the obtained eye-movement and gaze measures. We take this review to represent the empirical foundation for reporting guidelines of any study involving an eye tracker. We compare this empirical foundation to five existing reporting guidelines and to a database of 207 published eye-tracking studies. We find that reporting guidelines vary substantially and do not match with actual reporting practices. We end by deriving a minimal, flexible reporting guideline based on empirical research (Section “An empirically based minimal reporting guideline”).Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023