Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to nonfederal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

Kernel matrices, as well as weighted graphs represented by them, are ubiquitous objects in machine learning, statistics and other related fields. The main drawback of using kernel methods (learning and inference using kernel matrices) is efficiency – given n input points, most kernelbased algorithms need to materialize the full n × n kernel matrix before performing any subsequent computation, thus incurring Ω(n^2) runtime. Breaking this quadratic barrier for various problems has therefore, been a subject of extensive research efforts. We break the quadratic barrier and obtain subquadratic time algorithms for several fundamental linearalgebraic and graph processing primitives, including approximating the top eigenvalue and eigenvector, spectral sparsification, solving lin ear systems, local clustering, lowrank approximation, arboricity estimation and counting weighted triangles. We build on the recently developed Kernel Density Estimation framework, which (after preprocessing in time subquadratic in n) can return estimates of row/column sums of the kernel matrix. In particular, we de velop efficient reductions from weighted vertex and weighted edge sampling on kernel graphs, simulating random walks on kernel graphs, and importance sampling on matrices to Kernel Density Estimation and show that we can generate samples from these distributions in sublinear (in the support of the distribution) time. Our reductions are the central ingredient in each of our applications and we believe they may be of independent interest. We empirically demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithms on lowrank approximation (LRA) and spectral sparsi fication, where we observe a 9x decrease in the number of kernel evaluations over baselines for LRA and a 41x reduction in the graph size for spectral sparsification.more » « less

We study statistical/computational tradeoffs for the following density estimation problem: given kdistributionsv1,...,vk overadiscretedomain of size n, and sampling access to a distribution p, identify vi that is “close” to p. Our main result is the first data structure that, given a sublinear (in n) number of samples from p, identifies vi in time sublinear in k. We also give an improved version of the algorithm of (Acharya et al., 2018) that reports vi in time linear in k. The experimental evaluation of the latter algorithm shows that it achieves a significant reduction in the number of operations needed to achieve a given accuracy compared to prior work.more » « less

An εapproximate quantile sketch over a stream of n inputs approximates the rank of any query point q—that is, the number of input points less than q—up to an additive error of εn, generally with some probability of at least 1−1/ poly(n), while consuming o(n) space. While the celebrated KLL sketch of Karnin, Lang, and Liberty achieves a provably optimal quantile approximation algorithm over worstcase streams, the approximations it achieves in practice are often far from optimal. Indeed, the most commonly used technique in practice is Dunning’s tdigest, which often achieves much better approximations than KLL on realworld data but is known to have arbitrarily large errors in the worst case. We apply interpolation techniques to the streaming quantiles problem to attempt to achieve better approximations on realworld data sets than KLL while maintaining similar guarantees in the worst case.more » « less

The distance matrix of a dataset X of n points with respect to a distance function f represents all pairwise distances between points in X induced by f. Due to their wide applicability, distance matrices and related families of matrices have been the focus of many recent algorithmic works. We continue this line of research and take a broad view of algorithm design for distance matrices with the goal of designing fast algorithms, which are specifically tailored for distance matrices, for fundamental linear algebraic primitives. Our results include efficient algorithms for computing matrixvector products for a wide class of distance matrices, such as the l1 metric for which we get a linear runtime, as well as a quadratic lower bound for any algorithm which computes a matrixvector product for the l_infty case. Our upper bound results have many further downstream applications, including the fastest algorithm for computing a relative error lowrank approximation for the distance matrix induced by l1 and l2 functions and the fastest algorithm for computing an additive error lowrank approximation for the l2 metric, in addition to applications for fast matrix multiplication among others. We also give algorithms for constructing distance matrices and show that one can construct an approximate l2 distance matrix in time faster than the bound implied by the JohnsonLindenstrauss lemma.more » « less

We propose a model for online graph problems where algorithms are given access to an oracle that predicts (e.g., based on modeling assumptions or on past data) the degrees of nodes in the graph. Within this model, we study the classic problem of online bipartite matching, and a natural greedy matching algorithm called MinPredictedDegree, which uses predictions of the degrees of offline nodes. For the bipartite version of a stochastic graph model due to Chung, Lu, and Vu where the expected values of the offline degrees are known and used as predictions, we show that MinPredictedDegree stochastically dominates any other online algorithm, i.e., it is optimal for graphs drawn from this model. Since the “symmetric” version of the model, where all online nodes are identical, is a special case of the wellstudied “known i.i.d. model”, it follows that the competitive ratio of MinPredictedDegree on such inputs is at least 0.7299. For the special case of graphs with power law degree distributions, we show that MinPredictedDegree frequently produces matchings almost as large as the true maximum matching on such graphs. We complement these results with an extensive empirical evaluation showing that MinPredictedDegree compares favorably to stateoftheart online algorithms for online matching.more » « less

Recent work shows that the expressive power of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) in distinguishing nonisomorphic graphs is exactly the same as that of the WeisfeilerLehman (WL) graph test. In particular, they show that the WL test can be simulated by GNNs. However, those simulations involve neural networks for the “combine” function of size polynomial or even exponential in the number of graph nodes n, as well as feature vectors of length linear in n. We present an improved simulation of the WL test on GNNs with exponentially lower complexity. In particular, the neural network implementing the combine function in each node has only polylog(n) parameters, and the feature vectors exchanged by the nodes of GNN consists of only O(log n) bits. We also give logarithmic lower bounds for the feature vector length and the size of the neural networks, showing the (near)optimality of our construction.more » « less