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  1. The aim of this work is to propose a mosquito-inspired (bioinspired) design of a surgical needle that can decrease the insertion force and the tissue deformation, which are the main causes of target inaccuracy during percutaneous procedures. The bioinspired needle was developed by mimicking the geometrical shapes of mosquito proboscis. Needle prototypes were manufactured and tested to determine optimized needle shapes and geometries. Needle insertion tests on a tissue-mimicking polyvinylchloride (PVC) gel were then performed to emulate the mosquito-proboscis stinging dynamics by applying vibration and insertion velocity during the insertion. An insertion test setup equipped with a sensing system was constructed to measure the insertion force and to assess the deformation of the tissue. It was discovered that using the proposed bioinspired design, the needle insertion force was decreased by 60% and the tissue deformation was reduced by 48%. This finding is significant for improving needle-based medical procedures. 
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  2. The precise spatiotemporal control and manipulation of fluid dynamics on a small scale granted by lab-on-a-chip devices provide a new biomedical research realm as a substitute for in vivo studies of host–pathogen interactions. While there has been a rise in the use of various medical devices/implants for human use, the applicability of microfluidic models that integrate such functional biomaterials is currently limited. Here, we introduced a novel dental implant-on-a-chip model to better understand host–material–pathogen interactions in the context of peri-implant diseases. The implant-on-a-chip integrates gingival cells with relevant biomaterials – keratinocytes with dental resin and fibroblasts with titanium while maintaining a spatially separated co-culture. To enable this co-culture, the implant-on-a-chip's core structure necessitates closely spaced, tall microtrenches. Thus, an SU-8 master mold with a high aspect-ratio pillar array was created by employing a unique backside UV exposure with a selective optical filter. With this model, we successfully replicated the morphology of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the vicinity of dental implant biomaterials. Furthermore, we demonstrated how photobiomodulation therapy might be used to protect the epithelial layer from recurrent bacterial challenges (∼3.5-fold reduction in cellular damage vs. control). Overall, our dental implant-on-a-chip approach proposes a new microfluidic model for multiplexed host–material–pathogen investigations and the evaluation of novel treatment strategies for infectious diseases. 
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  3. Biomedical systems of implanted miniaturized sensors and actuators interconnected into an intra-body area net-work could revolutionize treatment options for chronic diseases afflicting internal organs. Considering the well-understood limitations of radio frequency (RF) propagation in the human body, we have explored magnetic resonance (MR) coupling for both communications and energy transfer through the body. In this paper, we have discussed the design and implementation of a software-defined prototype using Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) boards. We have reported experimental results on the achieved packet error rates at different positions through-the-body distances and packet sizes. We have observed experimentally that the MR signal propagates through the body substantially better than in the air, and can provide a practical means for energy transfer and communications in intra-body networks. It also works better than the better understood galvanic coupling. 
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  4. Effective management of emerging medical devices can lead to new insights in healthcare. Thus, a human body communication (HBC) is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we present magnetic resonance (MR) coupling as a promising method for intra-body network (IBNet). The study reveals that MR coupling can effectively send or receive signals in biological tissue, with a maximum path loss of PL 33 dB (i.e. at 13.56 MHz), which is lower than other methods (e.g., galvanic, capacitive, or RF) for the same distance. The angular orientation of the transmitter and receiver coils at short and long distances also show a minor variation of the path loss (0.19 PL 0.62 dB), but more dependency on the distance (0.0547 dB/cm). Additionally, different postures during the MR coupling essentially do not affect path loss (PL 0.21 dB). In the multi-nodal transmission scenario, the MR coupling demonstrates that two nodes can simultaneously receive signals with -16.77 dBm loss at 60 cm and 100 cm distances, respectively. Such multi-node MR transmission can be utilized for communication, sensing, and powering wearable and implantable devices. 
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  5. Ultrasonic powering is an emerging power source for implantable microdevices due to its superior efficiency in energy transfer at millimeter-scale, long operation distance, and near omnidirectionality. In this paper, we investigate a novel polyhedral ultrasound transducer with emphasis on angular alignment between piezoelectric poling vector and incident waves. Three different polyhedrons (i.e., sphere, octahedron, and dodecahedron) are fabricated via 3D printing lead-free barium titanate ceramic. The maximum output voltage for a unit area occurred at 0° when the poling and waves direction aligned, which were measured to be 0.677±0.071,1.058±0.049 , and 0.709±0.092 V , respectively. At the extreme angular misalignment at 90° (poling and waves perpendicular to each other), only the dodecahedron could sustain the voltage output with 21% reduction, whereas sphere and octahedron dropped by 46%. The results imply that the geometry factor may overcome the poling vector, enabling omnidirectional ultrasonic powering for implantable microdevices. 
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  6. In this paper, we introduce an oral motion-powered Smart Tooth system that can monitor oral health. Lower pH is an indicator of bacterial accumulation in the oral cavity, which can cause tooth decay, periodontal or peri-implant diseases. Thus, in situ monitoring pH inside of the mouth is critical to prevent oral diseases. Using a piezoelectric dental crown, Smart Tooth system converts oral motions, such as chewing, to electrical power which can impinge a surface integrated LC transponder. The LC transponder also incorporates iron oxide nanoparticles-embedded pH-sensitive hydrogel that modulates the resonant frequency via shrinking or swelling. As a proof of concept, the fabricated prototype measures pH levels ranging from pH 4 to 12 and sends data wirelessly to the receiver placed up to 5 cm away (wireless transmission path loss at 3 cm was 50.79 dB). The results indicate that the Smart Tooth system can monitor oral health while replacing missing teeth. 
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