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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. In cloud computing systems, elastic events and stragglers increase the uncertainty of the system, leading to computation delays. Coded elastic computing (CEC) introduced by Yang et al. in 2018 is a framework which mitigates the impact of elastic events using Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) coded storage. It proposed a CEC scheme for both matrix-vector multiplication and general matrix-matrix multiplication applications. However, in these applications, the proposed CEC scheme cannot tolerate stragglers due to the limitations imposed by MDS codes. In this paper we propose a new elastic computing scheme using uncoded storage and Lagrange coded computing approaches. The proposed scheme can effectively mitigate the effects of both elasticity and stragglers. Moreover, it produces a lower complexity and smaller recovery threshold compared to existing coded storage based schemes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 28, 2024
  3. Secure aggregation, which is a core component of federated learning, aggregates locally trained models from distributed users at a central server, without revealing any other information about the local users' data. This paper follows a recent information theoretic secure aggregation problem with user dropouts, where the objective is to characterize the minimum communication cost from the K users to the server during the model aggregation. All existing secure aggregation protocols let the users share and store coded keys to guarantee security. On the motivation that uncoded groupwise keys are more convenient to be shared and could be used in large range of practical applications, this paper is the first to consider uncoded groupwise keys, where the keys are mutually independent and each key is shared by a group of S users. We show that if S is beyond a threshold, a new secure aggregation protocol with uncoded groupwise keys, referred to as GroupSecAgg, can achieve the same optimal communication cost as the best protocol with coded keys. The experiments on Amazon EC2 show the considerable improvements on the key sharing and model aggregation times compared to the state-of-the art. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 28, 2024
  4. We consider the problem of spectrum sharing by multiple cellular operators. We propose a novel deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL)-based distributed power allocation scheme which utilizes the multi-agent Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (MA-DDPG) algorithm. In particular, we model the base stations (BSs) that belong to the multiple operators sharing the same band, as DRL agents that simultaneously determine the transmit powers to their scheduled user equipment (UE) in a synchronized manner. The power decision of each BS is based on its own observation of the radio environment (RF) environment, which consists of interference measurements reported from the UEs it serves, and a limited amount of information obtained from other BSs. One advantage of the proposed scheme is that it addresses the single-agent non-stationarity problem of RL in the multi-agent scenario by incorporating the actions and observations of other BSs into each BS's own critic which helps it to gain a more accurate perception of the overall RF environment. A centralized-training-distributed-execution framework is used to train the policies where the critics are trained over the joint actions and observations of all BSs while the actor of each BS only takes the local observation as input in order to produce the transmit power. Simulation with the 6 GHz Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII)-5 band shows that the proposed power allocation scheme can achieve better throughput performance than several state-of-the-art approaches. 
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  5. Elasticity is one important feature in modern cloud computing systems and can result in computation failure or significantly increase computing time. Such elasticity means that virtual machines over the cloud can be preempted under a short notice (e.g., hours or minutes) if a high-priority job appears; on the other hand, new virtual machines may become available over time to compensate the computing resources. Coded Storage Elastic Computing (CSEC) introduced by Yang et al. in 2018 is an effective and efficient approach to overcome the elasticity and it costs relatively less storage and computation load. However, one of the limitations of the CSEC is that it may only be applied to certain types of computations (e.g., linear) and may be challenging to be applied to more involved computations because the coded data storage and approximation are often needed. Hence, it may be preferred to use uncoded storage by directly copying data into the virtual machines. In addition, based on our own measurement, virtual machines on Amazon EC2 clusters often have heterogeneous computation speed even if they have exactly the same configurations (e.g., CPU, RAM, I/O cost). In this paper, we introduce a new optimization framework on Uncoded Storage Elastic Computing (USEC) systems with heterogeneous computing speed to minimize the overall computation time. Under this framework, we propose optimal solutions of USEC systems with or without straggler tolerance using different storage placements. Our proposed algorithms are evaluated using power iteration applications on Amazon EC2. 
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  6. We present a novel Packet Type (PT)-based design framework for the finite-length analysis of Device-to-Device (D2D) coded caching. By the exploitation of the asymmetry in the coded delivery phase, two fundamental forms of subpacketization reduction gain for D2D coded caching, i.e., the subfile saving gain and the further splitting saving gain, are identified in the PT framework. The proposed framework features a streamlined design process which uses several key concepts including user grouping, subfile and packet types, multicast group types, transmitter selection, local/global further splitting factor, and PT design as an integer optimization. In particular, based on a predefined user grouping, the subfile and multicast group types can be determined and the cache placement of the users can be correspondingly determined. In this stage, subfiles of certain types can be potentially excluded without being used in the designed caching scheme, which we refer to as subfile saving gain. In the delivery phase, by a careful selection of the transmitters within each type of multicast groups, a smaller number of packets that each subfile needs to be further split into can be achieved, leading to the further splitting saving gain. The joint effect of these two gains results in an overall subpacketization reduction compared to the Ji-Caire-Molisch (JCM) scheme [1]. Using the PT framework, a new class of D2D caching schemes is constructed with order reduction on subpacketization but the same rate when compared to the JCM scheme. 
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