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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Reproducible wafer-scale growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process with precise control over their properties is challenging due to a lack of understanding of the growth mechanisms spanning over several length scales and sensitivity of the synthesis to subtle changes in growth conditions. A multiscale computational framework coupling Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Phase-Field (PF), and reactive Molecular Dynamics (MD) was developed – called the CPM model – and experimentally verified. Correlation between theoretical predictions and thorough experimental measurements for a Metal-Organic CVD (MOCVD)-grown WSe2model material revealed the full power of this computational approach. Large-area uniform 2D materials are synthesized via MOCVD, guided by computational analyses. The developed computational framework provides the foundation for guiding the synthesis of wafer-scale 2D materials with precise control over the coverage, morphology, and properties, a critical capability for fabricating electronic, optoelectronic, and quantum computing devices.

     
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  3. Abstract

    The exotic properties of 2D materials made them ideal candidates for applications in quantum computing, flexible electronics, and energy technologies. A major barrier to their adaptation for industrial applications is their controllable and reproducible growth at a large scale. A significant effort has been devoted to the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of wafer-scale highly crystalline monolayer materials through exhaustive trial-and-error experimentations. However, major challenges remain as the final morphology and growth quality of the 2D materials may significantly change upon subtle variation in growth conditions. Here, we introduced a multiscale/multiphysics model based on coupling continuum fluid mechanics and phase-field models for CVD growth of 2D materials. It connects the macroscale experimentally controllable parameters, such as inlet velocity and temperature, and mesoscale growth parameters such as surface diffusion and deposition rates, to morphology of the as-grown 2D materials. We considered WSe2as our model material and established a relationship between the macroscale growth parameters and the growth coverage. Our model can guide the CVD growth of monolayer materials and paves the way to their synthesis-by-design.

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    Abstract

    Precipitation strengthening of alloys by the formation of secondary particles (precipitates) in the matrix is one of the techniques used for increasing the mechanical strength of metals. Understanding the precipitation kinetics such as nucleation, growth, and coarsening of these precipitates is critical for evaluating their hardening effects and improving the yield strength of the alloy during heat treatment. To optimize the heat treatment strategy and accelerate alloy design, predicting precipitate hardening effects via numerical methods is a promising complement to trial-and-error-based experiments and the physics-based phase-field method stands out with the significant potential to accurately predict the precipitate morphology and kinetics. In this study, we present a phase-field model that captures the nucleation, growth, and coarsening kinetics of precipitates during isothermal heat treatment conditions. Thermodynamic data, diffusion coefficients, and misfit strain data from experimental or lower length-scale calculations are used as input parameters for the phase-field model. Classical nucleation theory is implemented to capture the nucleation kinetics. As a case study, we apply the model to investigate γ″ precipitation kinetics in Inconel 625. The simulated mean particle length, aspect ratio, and volume fraction evolution are in agreement with experimental data for simulations at 600 °C and 650 °C during isothermal heat treatment. Utilizing the meso-scale results from the phase-field simulations as input parameters to a macro-scale coherency strengthening model, the evolution of the yield strength during heat treatment was predicted. In a broader context, we believe the current study can provide practical guidance for applying the phase-field approach as a link in the multiscale modeling of material properties.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a powerful technique for synthesizing monolayer materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides. It has advantages over exfoliation techniques, including higher purity and the ability to control the chemistry of the products. However, controllable and reproducible synthesis of 2D materials using CVD is a challenge because of the complex growth process and its sensitivity to subtle changes in growth conditions, making it difficult to extend conclusions obtained in one CVD chamber to another. Here, we developed a multiscale model linking CVD control parameters to the morphology, size, and distribution of synthesized 2D materials. Its capabilities are experimentally validated via the systematic growth of MoS2. In particular, we coupled the reactor-scale governing heat and mass transport equations with the mesoscale phase-field equations for the growth morphology considering the variation of edge energies with the precursor concentration within the growth chamber. The predicted spatial distributions of 2D islands are statistically analyzed, and experiments are then performed to validate the predicted island morphology and distributions. It is shown that the model can be employed to predict and control the morphology and characteristics of synthesized 2D materials.

     
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