skip to main content

Title: Investigating the Precipitation Kinetics and Hardening Effects of γ” in Inconel 625 Using a Combination of Meso-Scale Phase-Field Simulations and Macro-Scale Precipitate Strengthening Calculations
Abstract

Precipitation strengthening of alloys by the formation of secondary particles (precipitates) in the matrix is one of the techniques used for increasing the mechanical strength of metals. Understanding the precipitation kinetics such as nucleation, growth, and coarsening of these precipitates is critical for evaluating their hardening effects and improving the yield strength of the alloy during heat treatment. To optimize the heat treatment strategy and accelerate alloy design, predicting precipitate hardening effects via numerical methods is a promising complement to trial-and-error-based experiments and the physics-based phase-field method stands out with the significant potential to accurately predict the precipitate morphology and kinetics. In this study, we present a phase-field model that captures the nucleation, growth, and coarsening kinetics of precipitates during isothermal heat treatment conditions. Thermodynamic data, diffusion coefficients, and misfit strain data from experimental or lower length-scale calculations are used as input parameters for the phase-field model. Classical nucleation theory is implemented to capture the nucleation kinetics. As a case study, we apply the model to investigate γ″ precipitation kinetics in Inconel 625. The simulated mean particle length, aspect ratio, and volume fraction evolution are in agreement with experimental data for simulations at 600 °C and 650 °C during more » isothermal heat treatment. Utilizing the meso-scale results from the phase-field simulations as input parameters to a macro-scale coherency strengthening model, the evolution of the yield strength during heat treatment was predicted. In a broader context, we believe the current study can provide practical guidance for applying the phase-field approach as a link in the multiscale modeling of material properties.

« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1662854
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10225402
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the ASME 2020 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the most widely used additive manufacturing technologies. Fabricating nickel-based superalloys with SLM has garnered significant interest from the industry and the research community alike due to the excellent high temperature properties and thermal stability exhibited by the alloys. Haynes-282 alloy, a γ′-phase strengthened Ni-based superalloy, has shown good high temperature mechanical properties comparable to alloys like R-41, Waspaloy, and 263 alloy but with better fabricability. A study and comparison of the effect of different heat-treatment routes on microstructure and mechanical property evolution of Haynes-282 fabricated with SLM is lacking in the literature. Hence,more »in this manuscript, a thorough investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties after a three-step heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been conducted. In-situ heat-treatment experiments were conducted in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study γ′ precipitate evolution. γ′ precipitation was found to start at 950 °C during in-situ heat-treatment. Insights from the in-situ heat-treatment were used to decide the aging heat-treatment for the alloy. The three-step heat-treatment was found to increase yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). HIP process enabled γ′ precipitation and recrystallization of grains of the as-printed samples in one single step.« less
  2. Traditionally, precipitates in a material are thought to serve as obstacles to dislocation glide and cause hardening of the material. This conventional wisdom, however, fails to explain recent discoveries of ultrahigh-strength and large-ductility materials with a high density of nanoscale precipitates, as obstacles to dislocation glide often lead to high stress concentration and even microcracks, a cause of progressive strain localization and the origin of the strength–ductility conflict. Here we reveal that nanoprecipitates provide a unique type of sustainable dislocation sources at sufficiently high stress, and that a dense dispersion of nanoprecipitates simultaneously serve as dislocation sources and obstacles, leadingmore »to a sustainable and self-hardening deformation mechanism for enhanced ductility and high strength. The condition to achieve sustainable dislocation nucleation from a nanoprecipitate is governed by the lattice mismatch between the precipitate and matrix, with stress comparable to the recently reported high strength in metals with large amount of nanoscale precipitates. It is also shown that the combination of Orowan’s precipitate hardening model and our critical condition for dislocation nucleation at a nanoprecipitate immediately provides a criterion to select precipitate size and spacing in material design. The findings reported here thus may help establish a foundation for strength–ductility optimization through densely dispersed nanoprecipitates in multiple-element alloy systems.« less
  3. The deformation behavior of the extruded magnesium alloys Mg2Nd and Mg2Yb was investigated at room temperature. By using in situ energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction compression and tensile tests, accompanied by Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent (EPSC) modeling, the differences in the active deformation systems were analyzed. Both alloying elements change and weaken the extrusion texture and form precipitates during extrusion and subsequent heat treatments relative to common Mg alloys. By varying the extrusion parameters and subsequent heat treatment, the strengths and ductility can be adjusted over a wide range while still maintaining a strength differential effect (SDE) of close to zero. Remarkably, themore »compressive and tensile yield strengths are similar and there is no mechanical anisotropy when comparing tensile and compressive deformation, which is desirable for industrial applications. Uncommon for Mg alloys, Mg2Nd shows a low tensile twinning activity during compression tests. We show that heat treatments promote the nucleation and growth of precipitates and increase the yield strengths isotopically up to 200 MPa. The anisotropy of the yield strength is reduced to a minimum and elongations to failure of about 0.2 are still achieved. At lower strengths, elongations to failure of up to 0.41 are reached. In the Mg2Yb alloy, adjusting the extrusion parameters enhances the rare-earth texture and reduces the grain size. Excessive deformation twinning is, however, observed, but despite this the SDE is still minimized.« less
  4. Numerous laboratory studies in the past decade have demonstrated the ability of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), a bio-mediated soil improvement method, to favorably transform a soil’s engineering properties including increased shear strength and stiffness with reductions in hydraulic conductivity and porosity. Despite significant advances in treatment application techniques and characterization of post-treatment engineering properties, relationships between biogeochemical conditions during precipitation and post-treatment material properties have remained poorly understood. Bacterial augmentation, stimulation, and cementation treatments can vary dramatically in their chemical constituents, concentrations, and ratios between researchers, with specific formulas oftentimes perpetuating despite limited understanding of their engineering implications. Inmore »this study, small-scale batch experiments were used to systematically investigate how biogeochemical conditions during precipitate synthesis may influence resulting bio-cementation and related material engineering behaviors. Aqueous solution chemistry was monitored in time to better understand the relationship between the kinetics of ureolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation, and resulting precipitates. Following all experiments, precipitates were evaluated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to characterize mineralogy and morphology. Results obtained from these investigations are expected to help identify the primary chemical and biological factors during synthesis that may control bio-cementation material properties and« less
  5. High-entropy alloys (HEAs) with good ductility and high strength are usually prepared by a combination of forging and heat-treatment processes. In comparison, the as-cast HEAs typically do not reach strengths similar to those of HEAs produced by the forging and heat-treatment processes. Here we report a novel equiatomic-ratio CoCrCuMnNi HEA prepared by vacuum arc melting. We observe that this HEA has excellent mechanical properties, i.e. , a yield strength of 458 MPa, and an ultimate tensile strength of 742 MPa with an elongation of 40%. Many nanometer precipitates (5–50 nm in size) and domains (5–10 nm in size) are foundmore »in the inter-dendrite and dendrite zones of the produced HEA, which is the key factor for its excellent mechanical properties. The enthalpy of mixing between Cu and Mn, Cr, Co, or Ni is higher than those of mixing between any two of Cr, Co, Ni and Mn, which leads to the separation of Cu from the CoCrCuMnNi HEA. Furthermore, we reveal the nanoscale-precipitate-phase-forming mechanism in the proposed HEA.« less