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Creators/Authors contains: "Jiang, Yan-Fei"

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  1. Abstract

    We present a formulation and numerical algorithm to extend the scheme for gray radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) developed by Jiang to include the frequency dependence via the multigroup approach. The entire frequency space can be divided into an arbitrary number of groups in the lab frame, and we follow the time-dependent evolution of frequency-integrated specific intensities along discrete rays inside each group. Spatial transport of photons is done in the lab frame while all the coupling terms are solved in the fluid rest frame. Lorentz transformation is used to connect different frames. The radiation transport equation is solved fully implicitly in time while the MHD equations are evolved explicitly so that time step is not limited by the speed of light. A finite volume approach is used for transport in both spatial and frequency spaces to conserve the radiation energy density and momentum. The algorithm includes photon absorption, electron scattering, as well as Compton scattering, which is calculated by solving the Kompaneets equation. The algorithm is accurate for a wide range of optical depth conditions and can handle both radiation-pressure- and gas-pressure-dominated flows. It works for both Cartesian and curvilinear coordinate systems with adaptive mesh refinement. We provide a varietymore »of test problems including a radiating sphere, shadow test, absorption of a moving gas, Bondi-type flows, as well as a collection of test problems for thermal and bulk Compton scattering. We also discuss examples where frequency dependence can make a big difference compared with the gray approach.

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    High luminosity accretion on to a strongly magnetized neutron star results in a radiation pressure dominated, magnetically confined accretion column. We investigate the dynamics of these columns using 2D radiative relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, restricting consideration to modest accretion rates where the height of the column is low enough that Cartesian geometry can be employed. The column structure is dynamically maintained through high-frequency oscillations of the accretion shock at ≃ 10–25 kHz. These oscillations arise because it is necessary to redistribute the power released at the accretion shock through bulk vertical motions, both to balance the cooling and to provide vertical pressure support against gravity. Sideways cooling always dominates the loss of internal energy. In addition to the vertical oscillations, photon bubbles form in our simulations and add additional spatial complexity to the column structure. They are not themselves responsible for the oscillations, and they do not appear to affect the oscillation period. However, they enhance the vertical transport of radiation and increase the oscillation amplitude in luminosity. The time-averaged column structure in our simulations resembles the trends in standard 1D stationary models, the main difference being that the time-averaged height of the shock front is lower because of the highermore »cooling efficiency of the 2D column shape.

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  3. Abstract

    UsingAthena++, we perform 3D radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of the radiative breakout of the shock wave in the outer envelope of a red supergiant (RSG) that has suffered core collapse and will become a Type IIP supernova. The intrinsically 3D structure of the fully convective RSG envelope yields key differences in the brightness and duration of the shock breakout (SBO) from that predicted in a 1D stellar model. First, the lower-density “halo” of material outside of the traditional photosphere in 3D models leads to a shock breakout at lower densities than 1D models. This would prolong the duration of the shock breakout flash at any given location on the surface to ≈1–2 hr. However, we find that the even larger impact is the intrinsically 3D effect associated with large-scale fluctuations in density that cause the shock to break out at different radii at different times. This substantially prolongs the SBO duration to ≈3–6 hr and implies a diversity of radiative temperatures, as different patches across the stellar surface are at different stages of their radiative breakout and cooling at any given time. These predicted durations are in better agreement with existing observations of SBO. The longer durations lower the predicted luminositiesmore »by a factor of 3–10 (Lbol∼ 1044erg s−1), and we derive the new scalings of brightness and duration with explosion energies and stellar properties. These intrinsically 3D properties eliminate the possibility of using observed rise times to measure the stellar radius via light-travel time effects.

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    Recently, cosmic rays (CRs) have emerged as a leading candidate for driving galactic winds. Small-scale processes can dramatically affect global wind properties. We run two-moment simulations of CR streaming to study how sound waves are driven unstable by phase-shifted CR forces and CR heating. We verify linear theory growth rates. As the sound waves grow non-linear, they steepen into a quasi-periodic series of propagating shocks; the density jumps at shocks create CR bottlenecks. The depth of a propagating bottleneck depends on both the density jump and its velocity; ΔPc is smaller for rapidly moving bottlenecks. A series of bottlenecks creates a CR staircase structure, which can be understood from a convex hull construction. The system reaches a steady state between growth of new perturbations, and stair mergers. CRs are decoupled at plateaus, but exert intense forces and heating at stair jumps. The absence of CR heating at plateaus leads to cooling, strong gas pressure gradients and further shocks. If bottlenecks are stationary, they can drastically modify global flows; if their propagation times are comparable to dynamical times, their effects on global momentum and energy transfer are modest. The CR acoustic instability is likely relevant in thermal interfaces between coldmore »and hot gas, as well as galactic winds. Similar to increased opacity in radiative flows, the build-up of CR pressure due to bottlenecks can significantly increase mass outflow rates, by up to an order of magnitude. It seeds unusual forms of thermal instability, and the shocks could have distinct observational signatures, on ∼kpc scales.

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  5. ABSTRACT The core accretion model of giant planet formation has been challenged by the discovery of recycling flows between the planetary envelope and the disc that can slow or stall envelope accretion. We carry out 3D radiation hydrodynamic simulations with an updated opacity compilation to model the proto-Jupiter’s envelope. To isolate the 3D effects of convection and recycling, we simulate both isolated spherical envelopes and envelopes embedded in discs. The envelopes are heated at given rates to achieve steady states, enabling comparisons with 1D models. We vary envelope properties to obtain both radiative and convective solutions. Using a passive scalar, we observe significant mass recycling on the orbital time-scale. For a radiative envelope, recycling can only penetrate from the disc surface until ∼0.1–0.2 planetary Hill radii, while for a convective envelope, the convective motion can ‘dredge up’ the deeper part of the envelope so that the entire convective envelope is recycled efficiently. This recycling, however, has only limited effects on the envelopes’ thermal structure. The radiative envelope embedded in the disc has identical structure as the isolated envelope. The convective envelope has a slightly higher density when it is embedded in the disc. We introduce a modified 1D approach whichmore »can fully reproduce our 3D simulations. With our updated opacity and 1D model, we recompute Jupiter’s envelope accretion with a 10 M⊕ core, and the time-scale to runaway accretion is shorter than the disc lifetime as in prior studies. Finally, we discuss the implications of the efficient recycling on the observed chemical abundances of the planetary atmosphere (especially for super-Earths and mini-Neptunes).« less
  6. ABSTRACT FU Ori is the prototype of FU Orionis systems that are outbursting protoplanetary discs. Magnetic fields in FU Ori’s accretion discs have previously been detected using spectropolarimetry observations for Zeeman effects. We carry out global radiation ideal MHD simulations to study FU Ori’s inner accretion disc. We find that (1) when the disc is threaded by vertical magnetic fields, most accretion occurs in the magnetically dominated atmosphere at z ∼ R, similar to the ‘surface accretion’ mechanism in previous locally isothermal MHD simulations. (2) A moderate disc wind is launched in the vertical field simulations with a terminal speed of ∼300–500 km s−1 and a mass-loss rate of 1–10 per cent the disc accretion rate, which is consistent with observations. Disc wind fails to be launched in simulations with net toroidal magnetic fields. (3) The disc photosphere at the unit optical depth can be either in the wind launching region or the accreting surface region. Magnetic fields have drastically different directions and magnitudes between these two regions. Our fiducial model agrees with previous optical Zeeman observations regarding both the field directions and magnitudes. On the other hand, simulations indicate that future Zeeman observations at near-IR wavelengths or towards other FU Orionis systems maymore »reveal very different magnetic field structures. (4) Due to energy loss by the disc wind, the disc photosphere temperature is lower than that predicted by the thin disc theory, and the previously inferred disc accretion rate may be lower than the real accretion rate by a factor of ∼2–3.« less
  7. Accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei produce continuum radiation at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. Physical processes in the accretion flow lead to stochastic variability of this emission on a wide range of time scales. We measured the optical continuum variability observed in 67 active galactic nuclei and the characteristic time scale at which the variability power spectrum flattens. We found a correlation between this time scale and the black hole mass extending over the entire mass range of supermassive black holes. This time scale is consistent with the expected thermal time scale at the ultraviolet-emitting radius in standard accretion disk theory. Accreting white dwarfs lie close to this correlation, suggesting a common process for all accretion disks.