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  1. Abstract

    Quantum fluids exhibit quantum mechanical effects at the macroscopic level, which contrast strongly with classical fluids. Gain-dissipative solid-state exciton-polaritons systems are promising emulation platforms for complex quantum fluid studies at elevated temperatures. Recently, halide perovskite polariton systems have emerged as materials with distinctive advantages over other room-temperature systems for future studies of topological physics, non-Abelian gauge fields, and spin-orbit interactions. However, the demonstration of nonlinear quantum hydrodynamics, such as superfluidity and Čerenkov flow, which is a consequence of the renormalized elementary excitation spectrum, remains elusive in halide perovskites. Here, using homogenous halide perovskites single crystals, we report, in both one- and two-dimensional cases, the complete set of quantum fluid phase transitions from normal classical fluids to scatterless polariton superfluids and supersonic fluids—all at room temperature, clear consequences of the Landau criterion. Specifically, the supersonic Čerenkov wave pattern was observed at room temperature. The experimental results are also in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions from the dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Our results set the stage for exploring the rich non-equilibrium quantum fluid many-body physics at room temperature and also pave the way for important polaritonic device applications.