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  1. The study evaluates compatibility of stabilizers with dye doped liquid crystal (LC) scaffolds that are used in electronically dimmable materials. The photodegradation of the materials was investigated and suitable stabilizers were evaluated to slow the degradation process. Various types of benzotriazole-based stabilizers were evaluated for stabilizing the liquid crystals. Based on spin trapping experiments, radicals generated upon UV exposure is likely responsible for the degradation of the system. The radical generation is competitively inhibited by the addition of stabilizers.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 24, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 23, 2023
  3. The energy of the lowest-lying triplet state (T1) relative to the ground and first-excited singlet states (S0, S1) plays a critical role in optical multiexcitonic processes of organic chromophores. Focusing on triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion, the S0 to T1 energy gap, known as the triplet energy, is difficult to measure experimentally for most molecules of interest. Ab initio predictions can provide a useful alternative, however low-scaling electronic structure methods such as the Kohn–Sham and time-dependent variants of Density Functional Theory (DFT) rely heavily on the fraction of exact exchange chosen for a given functional, and tend to be unreliable when strong electronic correlation is present. Here, we use auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC), a scalable electronic structure method capable of accurately describing even strongly correlated molecules, to predict the triplet energies for a series of candidate annihilators for TTA upconversion, including 9,10 substituted anthracenes and substituted benzothiadiazole (BTD) and benzoselenodiazole (BSeD) compounds. We compare our results to predictions from a number of commonly used DFT functionals, as well as DLPNO-CCSD(T 0 ), a localized approximation to coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples. Together with S1 estimates from absorption/emission spectra, which are well-reproduced by TD-DFT calculations employing the range-correctedmore »hybrid functional CAM-B3LYP, we provide predictions regarding the thermodynamic feasibility of upconversion by requiring (a) the measured T1 of the sensitizer exceeds that of the calculated T1 of the candidate annihilator, and (b) twice the T1 of the annihilator exceeds its S1 energetic value. We demonstrate a successful example of in silico discovery of a novel annihilator, phenyl-substituted BTD, and present experimental validation via low temperature phosphorescence and the presence of upconverted blue light emission when coupled to a platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) sensitizer. The BTD framework thus represents a new class of annihilators for TTA upconversion. Its chemical functionalization, guided by the computational tools utilized herein, provides a promising route towards high energy (violet to near-UV) emission.« less
  4. The platinum(II) complexes of known quinoline-annulated porphyrins were prepared and spectroscopically characterized. Their optical properties (UV-vis absorption and phosphorescence spectra and phosphorescence lifetimes) were recorded and contrasted against their 2,3-dioxoporphyrin precursor platinum(II) complex. The absorbance and emission spectra (in EtOH glass at 77 K) of the quinoline-annulated porphyrins fall within the NIR optical window of tissue, ranging, depending on the derivative, between [Formula: see text]950 and 1200 nm. The much red-shifted optical spectra, when compared to their non-quinoline-annulated precursors, are attributed to the [Formula: see text]-extension and conformational non-planarity that the annulation causes. The emission yields of the mono-quinoline-annulated derivatives are too low and their lifetimes too short to be practical emitters, but the bis-annulated derivative possesses a practical lifetime and emission yield, suggesting its further exploration, particularly since the methodology toward the solubilization of the quinoline-annulated porphyrins in biological media through derivatization is known.
  5. Abstract

    Notwithstanding the central biological role of the (6-4) photoadduct in the induction of skin cancer by sunlight, crucial mechanistic details about its formation have evaded characterization despite efforts spanning more than half a century. 4-Thiothymidine (4tT) has been widely used as an important model system to study its mechanism of formation, but the excited-state precursor, the intermediate species, and the time scale leading to the formation of the (6-4) photoadduct have remained elusive. Herein, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques are combined with new and reported quantum-chemical calculations to demonstrate the excited state leading to the formation of the thietane intermediate, its rate, and the formation of the (6-4) photoadduct using the 5’-TT(4tT)T(4tT)TT-3’ DNA oligonucleotide. Efficient, sub-1 ps intersystem crossing leads to the population of a triplet minimum of the thietane intermediate in as short as 3 ps, which intersystem crosses to its ground state and rearranges to form the (6-4) photoadduct.