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  1. Abstract

    Pebble accretion is recognized as a significant accelerator of planet formation. Yet only formulae for single-sized (monodisperse) distribution have been derived in the literature. These can lead to significant underestimates for Bondi accretion, for which the best accreted pebble size may not be the one that dominates the mass distribution. We derive in this paper the polydisperse theory of pebble accretion. We consider a power-law distribution in pebble radius, and we find the resulting surface and volume number density distribution functions. We derive also the exact monodisperse analytical pebble accretion rate for which 3D accretion and 2D accretion are limits. In addition, we find analytical solutions to the polydisperse 2D Hill and 3D Bondi limits. We integrate the polydisperse pebble accretion numerically for the MRN distribution, finding a slight decrease (by an exact factor 3/7) in the Hill regime compared to the monodisperse case. In contrast, in the Bondi regime, we find accretion rates 1–2 orders of magnitude higher compared to monodisperse, also extending the onset of pebble accretion to 1–2 orders of magnitude lower in mass. We find megayear timescales, within the disk lifetime, for Bondi accretion on top of planetary seeds of masses 10−6to 10−4M, over a significant range of the parameter space. This mass range overlaps with the high-mass end of the planetesimal initial mass function, and thus pebble accretion is possible directly following formation by streaming instability. This alleviates the need for mutual planetesimal collisions as a major contribution to planetary growth.

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  2. Abstract

    The radial transport, or drift, of dust has taken a critical role in giant planet formation theory. However, it has been challenging to identify dust drift pileups in the hard-to-observe inner disk. We find that the IM Lup disk shows evidence that it has been shaped by an episode of dust drift. Using radiative transfer and dust dynamical modeling we study the radial and vertical dust distribution. We find that high dust drift rates exceeding 110MMyr−1are necessary to explain both the dust and CO observations. Furthermore, the bulk of the large dust present in the inner 20 au needs to be vertically extended, implying high turbulence (αz≳ 10−3) and small grains (0.2–1 mm). We suggest that this increased level of particle stirring is consistent with the inner dust-rich disk undergoing turbulence triggered by the vertical shear instability. The conditions in the IM Lup disk imply that giant planet formation through pebble accretion is only effective outside of 20 au. If such an early, high-turbulence inner region is a natural consequence of high dust drift rates, then this has major implications for understanding the formation regions of giant planets including Jupiter and Saturn.

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