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  1. Abstract

    The exploitation of ecosystem services, through processes like agricultural production, is associated with myriad negative environmental impacts, which are felt by stakeholders on local, regional, and global scales. The varying type and scale of impacts leads naturally to fragmented and siloed approaches to mitigating externalities by diverse governmental and non-governmental institutions. However, policies designed to address a single impact may worsen other negative impacts. As a result, even when groups have the expertise to design policy solutions in one dimension, policies addressing single issues may conflict and result in less than ideal outcomes in combination. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework and examples of this kind of ‘policy collision,’ where policies produce mutual negative interference so that policies designed independently may fail to achieve their goals. We argue that an integrated systems perspective is needed to overcome this problem and present several positive examples where this has been put into practice. Policy collision provides a useful framework for determining how each colliding policy should be modified in improve outcomes.

  2. Abstract

    The interplay between charge transfer and electronic disorder in transition-metal dichalcogenide multilayers gives rise to superconductive coupling driven by proximity enhancement, tunneling and superconducting fluctuations, of a yet unwieldy variety. Artificial spacer layers introduced with atomic precision change the density of states by charge transfer. Here, we tune the superconductive coupling between NbSe2monolayers from proximity-enhanced to tunneling-dominated. We correlate normal and superconducting properties in [(SnSe)1+δ]m[NbSe2]1tailored multilayers with varying SnSe layer thickness (m= 1-15). From high-field magnetotransport the critical fields yield Ginzburg-Landau coherence lengths with an increase of 140% cross-plane (m= 1-9), trending towards two-dimensional superconductivity form> 9. We show cross-over between three regimes: metallic with proximity-enhanced coupling (m= 1-4), disordered-metallic with intermediate coupling (m= 5-9) and insulating with Josephson tunneling (m> 9). Our results demonstrate that stacking metal mono- and dichalcogenides allows to convert a metal/superconductor into an insulator/superconductor system, prospecting the control of two-dimensional superconductivity in embedded layers.

  3. Abstract A parasite can change its host’s behavior in spectacular ways. When the saltmarsh amphipod Orchestia grillus (Bosc, 1802) is infected with the trematode Levinseniella byrdi (Heard, 1968) it is bright orange and is found in the open unlike uninfected individuals. I tested the hypothesis that infected amphipods are found in the open because L. byrdi reverses their innate photophobia. During daytime treatments and when placed in a dark chamber, 0% of the uninfected and 20% of the infected amphipods, on average, moved to the light chamber after 30 minutes. When placed in a light chamber, 91% of the uninfected and 53% of the infected amphipods, on average, went to the dark side after 30 minutes. These results clearly indicate that O. grillus is normally photophobic, but not drawn to light when infected with L. byrdi. Instead, L. byrdi appears to neutralize the amphipod’s photophobia. Uninfected O. grillus are typically found under vegetation. I hypothesize that O. grillus with L. byrdi infections wander into open, unvegetated habitats randomly. In addition, 94% of infected amphipods could be touched by a finger in the field suggesting they can be easily caught by predators. Levinseniella byrdi infects at least three other amphipod hosts,more »Chelorchestia forceps (Smith & Heard, 2001), Uhlorchestia spartinophila (Bousfield & Heard, 1986), and U. uhleri (Shoemaker, 1930). The parasite-manipulation hypothesis suggests that the parasite-induced changes (conspicuous body color and neutralized light response) are adaptive for L. byrdi to make amphipod hosts more susceptible to bird predators, the definitive hosts. This hypothesis remains to be tested.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We document changes in U.S. children's family household composition from 1968 to 2017 with regard to the number and types of kin that children lived with and the frequency of family members' household entrances and departures. Data are from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 30,412). Children experienced three decades of increasing instability and diversification in household membership, arriving at a state of “stable complexity” in the most recent decade. Stable complexity is distinguished by a decline in the number of coresident parents; a higher number of stepparents, grandparents, and other relatives in children's households; and less turnover in household membership compared with prior decades, including fewer sibling departures. College-educated households with children were consistently the most stable and least diverse. On several dimensions, household composition has become increasingly similar for non-Hispanic Black and White children. Children in Hispanic households are distinct in having larger family sizes and more expected household entrances and departures by coresident kin.
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Multiple imputation (MI) is a popular and well-established method for handling missing data in multivariate data sets, but its practicality for use in massive and complex data sets has been questioned. One such data set is the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longstanding and extensive survey of household income and wealth in the United States. Missing data for this survey are currently handled using traditional hot deck methods because of the simple implementation; however, the univariate hot deck results in large random wealth fluctuations. MI is effective but faced with operational challenges. We use a sequential regression/chained-equation approach, using the software IVEware, to multiply impute cross-sectional wealth data in the 2013 PSID, and compare analyses of the resulting imputed data with those from the current hot deck approach. Practical difficulties, such as non-normally distributed variables, skip patterns, categorical variables with many levels, and multicollinearity, are described together with our approaches to overcoming them. We evaluate the imputation quality and validity with internal diagnostics and external benchmarking data. MI produces improvements over the existing hot deck approach by helping preserve correlation structures, such as the associations between PSID wealth components and the relationships between the household net worthmore »and sociodemographic factors, and facilitates completed data analyses with general purposes. MI incorporates highly predictive covariates into imputation models and increases efficiency. We recommend the practical implementation of MI and expect greater gains when the fraction of missing information is large.« less