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  1. Ice-rich permafrost is ground that is frozen all year round for two or more years and contains particularly large amounts of water that will be released upon thawing. This ice is the element of Arctic landscapes most susceptible to climate warming. Nearly 50% of the Arctic has ice-rich permafrost. For example, the upper 4-5 meters of the land along Alaska's northern coast contains an estimated 77% ice. Thawing of ice-rich permafrost affects entire arctic ecosystems and makes the ground unstable to build upon. This dataset consists of an orthomosaic and digital surface model (DSM) derived from drone surveys on 29 August 2021 at the Navigating the New Arctic, Ice-rich Permafrost Systems project field sites, in collaboration with the PermaSense project, in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfields. 2,463 digital images were acquired from a DJI Phantom 4 Real-Time Kinematic (DJI P4RTK) quadcopter with a DJI D-RTK 2 Mobile Base Station. The mapped area was around 232 hectares (ha). The drone system was flown at 100 meters (m) above ground level (agl) and flight speeds varied from 7–8 meters/second (m/s). The orientation of the camera was set to 90 degrees (i.e. looking straight down). The along-track overlap and across-track overlap of the mission were set at 80% and 70%, respectively. All images were processed in the software Pix4D Mapper (v. 4.6.4) using the standard 3D Maps workflow and the accurate geolocation and orientation calibration method to produce the orthophoto mosaic and digital surface model at spatial resolutions of 5 and 10 centimeters (cm), respectively. A Leica Viva differential global positioning system (GPS) provided ground control for the mission and the data were post-processed to WGS84 UTM Zone 6 North in Ellipsoid Heights (meters). Elevation information derived over waterbodies is noisy and does not represent the surface elevation of the feature. 
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  2. The Native Village of Point Lay (Kali) on the North Slope of Alaska has been identified as the second-most permafrost thaw-affected community in the state of Alaska (Denali Commission, 2019). The village has 82 residential units, housing a population of approximately 330. There are several North Slope Borough municipal structures and the Kali School that serve the community. Most of the residential buildings in the village are built on an elevated surface underlain by ice-rich permafrost that is susceptible to thaw and terrain subsidence. This dataset consists of an orthomosaic and digital surface model (DSM) derived from drone surveys on 26 June 2022 in Point Lay, Alaska. 990 digital images were acquired from a DJI Phantom 4 Real-Time Kinematic (DJI P4RTK) quadcopter with a DJI D-RTK 2 Mobile Base Station. The mapped area was around 130 hectares (ha). The drone system was flown at 120 meters (m) above ground level (agl) and flight speeds varied from 7–8 meters/second (m/s). The orientation of the camera was set to 90 degrees (i.e. looking straight down). The along-track overlap and across-track overlap of the mission were set at 80 percent (%) and 70%, respectively. All images were processed in the software Pix4D Mapper (v. 4.7.5) using the standard 3D Maps workflow and the accurate geolocation and orientation calibration method to produce the orthophoto mosaic and digital surface model at spatial resolutions of 5 and 10 centimeters (cm), respectively. A Leica Viva differential global positioning system (GPS) provided ground control for the mission and the data were post-processed to WGS84 UTM Zone 5 North in Ellipsoid Heights (meters). Elevation information derived over waterbodies is noisy and does not represent the surface elevation of the feature. 
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  3. Abstract

    Globally, coastal communities experience flood hazards that are projected to worsen from climate change and sea level rise. The 100-year floodplain or record flood are commonly used to identify risk areas for planning purposes. Remote communities often lack measured flood elevations and require innovative approaches to estimate flood elevations. This study employs observation-based methods to estimate the record flood elevation in Alaska communities and compares results to elevation models, infrastructure locations, and sea level rise projections. In 46 analyzed communities, 22% of structures are located within the record floodplain. With sea level rise projections, this estimate increases to 30–37% of structures by 2100 if structures remain in the same location. Flood exposure is highest in western Alaska. Sea level rise projections suggest northern Alaska will see similar flood exposure levels by 2100 as currently experienced in western Alaska. This evaluation of record flood height, category, and history can be incorporated into hazard planning documents, providing more context for coastal flood exposure than previously existed for Alaska. This basic flood exposure method is transferable to other areas with similar mapping challenges. Identifying current and projected hazardous zones is essential to avoid unintentional development in floodplains and improve long-term safety.

     
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  4. The University of Alaska Fairbanks T Field is a legacy farm field that is part of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Funded Permafrost Grown project. We are studying the long-term effects of permafrost thaw following initial clearing for cultivation purposes. In this regard, we have acquired very high resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and digital photography from a DJI M300 drone using a Zenmuse L1 and a MicaSense RedEdge-P camera. The Zenmuse L1 integrates a Livox Lidar module, a high-accuracy inertial measurement units (IMU), and a camera with a 1-inch CMOS on a 3-axis stabilized gimbal. The MicaSense RedEdge-P camera has five multispectral bands and a high-resolution panchromatic band. The drone was configured to fly in real-time kinematic (RTK) mode at an altitude of 60 meters above ground level using the DJI D-RTK 2 base station. Data was acquired using a 50% sidelap and a 70% frontlap for the Zenmuse L1 and an 80% sidelap and a 75% frontlap for the MicaSense. Additional ground control was established with a Leica GS18 global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and all data have been post-processed to World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) universal transverse mercator (UTM) Zone 6 North using ellipsoid heights. Data outputs include a two-class-classified LiDAR point cloud, digital surface model, digital terrain model, an orthophoto mosaic, and a multispectral orthoimage consisting of five bands. Image acquisition occurred on 18 August 2023. 
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  5. Abstract

    In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River fire burned more than 1000 km2of arctic tundra in northern Alaska, ~ 50% of which occurred in an area with ice-rich syngenetic permafrost (Yedoma). By 2014, widespread degradation of ice wedges was apparent in the Yedoma region. In a 50 km2area, thaw subsidence was detected across 15% of the land area in repeat airborne LiDAR data acquired in 2009 and 2014. Updating observations with a 2021 airborne LiDAR dataset show that additional thaw subsidence was detected in < 1% of the study area, indicating stabilization of the thaw-affected permafrost terrain. Ground temperature measurements between 2010 and 2015 indicated that the number of near-surface soil thawing-degree-days at the burn site were 3 × greater than at an unburned control site, but by 2022 the number was reduced to 1.3 × greater. Mean annual ground temperature of the near-surface permafrost increased by 0.33 °C/yr in the burn site up to 7-years post-fire, but then cooled by 0.15 °C/yr in the subsequent eight years, while temperatures at the control site remained relatively stable. Permafrost cores collected from ice-wedge troughs (n = 41) and polygon centers (n = 8) revealed the presence of a thaw unconformity, that in most cases was overlain by a recovered permafrost layer that averaged 14.2 cm and 18.3 cm, respectively. Taken together, our observations highlight that the initial degradation of ice-rich permafrost following the Anaktuvuk River tundra fire has been followed by a period of thaw cessation, permafrost aggradation, and terrain stabilization.

     
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  6. The Permafrost Grown project (NSF RISE Award # 2126965) is co-producing knowledge with farmers in Alaska (Tanana Valley and Bethel) to investigate the interactions and feedbacks between permafrost and agriculture. Additional project objectives include understanding legacy effects over a 120-year cultivation history in the Tanana Valley, evaluating the socio-economic effects of permafrost-agriculture interactions and provide decision making tools for farmers and finally to utilize education and outreach activities to share knowledge with the farmers and the public. The project focuses on in-the-ground farming in a range of cultivation types including crops, peonies and livestock. The project is funded through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Navigating the New Arctic Initiative. Data was collected at a small (less than one acre) farm that grows diverse crops. This farm has been impacted by subsidence from thawing ice-rich permafrost. The goal of the celery trials was to compare celery grown in areas that are wetter due to subsidence and celery grown in an upper area that has been less impacted by subsidence. In addition, over the same period, monitoring was done of two compost piles: one older pile that has been actively used and maintained for a few years that will no longer be maintained (i.e. adding of new material for decomposition) and the establishment of a new compost pile. The monitoring of the compost pile is part of a larger effort to determine the thermal impact of commonly used agricultural practices and the potential impact on permafrost. 
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  7. The Permafrost Grown project (NSF RISE Award # 2126965) is co-producing knowledge with farmers in Alaska (Tanana Valley and Bethel) to investigate the interactions and feedbacks between permafrost and agriculture. Additional project objectives include understanding legacy effects over a 120-year cultivation history in the Tanana Valley, evaluating the socio-economic effects of permafrost-agriculture interactions and provide decision making tools for farmers and finally to utilize education and outreach activities to share knowledge with the farmers and the public. The project focuses on in-the-ground farming in a range of cultivation types including crops, peonies and livestock. The project is funded through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Navigating the New Arctic Initiative. Temperature monitoring of various crop types with and without extension techniques was done at two farm sites in Fairbanks, Alaska (AK) during the 2022 growing season. This work was done through the Permafrost Grown Project as part of an effort to determine the thermal impact of commonly used agricultural seasonal-extension techniques, crop types and their potential impact on permafrost. Both farms are small scale, each cultivating on about 1 acre and both grow diverse crops. Both farms use various season extension techniques, including the use of plastic mulch to artificially warm soils and/or help control weeds. This dataset provides monitoring of ground temperatures at four depths (ground surface, 15 centimeter (cm), 50 cm and 100 cm) of various crops (carrots, cabbage, beets, onions, and squash). 
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  8. This dataset contains information on cryostratigraphy and ground-ice content of the upper permafrost, which was based on the results of 22 field trips in 2018-2023. Field studies were performed in various regions of Alaska and Canadian Arctic including the following study areas: Utqiagvik (former Barrow), Teshekpuk Lake, Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Toolik Lake, Jago River, Itkillik River, Anaktuvuk River, Fairbanks, Dalton Highway, Glennallen, Point Lay, Bylot Island (Canada), Inuvik-Tuktoyaktuk (Canada). Cryostratigraphy of the upper permafrost was studied mainly in coastal and riverbank exposures and frozen cores obtained from drilling with the SIPRE corer. Permafrost exposures and cores were described and photographed in the field, and obtained soil samples were delivered to the University of Alaska Fairbanks for additional descriptions and analyses. Ice contents of frozen soils (including gravimetric and volumetric moisture content, excess-ice content) were measured. The dataset includes cryostratigraphic descriptions, gravimetric (GMC) and volumetric (VMC) moisture content, excess-ice content (EIC), electrical conductivity (EC) and photographs of the permafrost exposures and frozen cores obtained from boreholes. 
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  9. Abstract

    Northern high-latitudes are projected to get warmer and wetter, which will affect rates of permafrost thaw and mechanisms by which thaw occurs. To better understand the impact of rain, as well as other factors such as snow depth, canopy cover, and microtopography, we instrumented a degrading permafrost plateau in south-central Alaska with high-resolution soil temperature sensors. The site contains ecosystem-protected permafrost, which persists in unfavorable climates due to favorable ecologic conditions. Our study (2020–2022) captured three of the snowiest years and three of the four wettest years since the site was first studied in 2015. Average thaw rates along an across-site transect increased nine-fold from 6 ± 5 cm yr−1(2015–2020) to 56 ± 12 cm yr−1(2020–2022). This thaw was not uniform. Hummock locations, residing on topographic high points with relatively dense canopy, experienced only 8 ± 9 cm yr−1of thaw, on average. Hollows, topographic low points with low canopy cover, and transition locations, which had canopy cover and elevation between hummocks and hollows, thawed 44 ± 6 cm yr−1and 39 ± 13 cm yr−1, respectively. Mechanisms of thaw differed between these locations. Hollows had high warm-season soil moisture, which increased thermal conductivity, and deep cold-season snow coverage, which insulated soil. Transition locations thawed primarily due to thermal energy transported through subsurface taliks during individual rain events. Most increases in depth to permafrost occurred below the ∼45 cm thickness seasonally frozen layer, and therefore, expanded existing site taliks. Results highlight the importance of canopy cover and microtopography in controlling soil thermal inputs, the ability of subsurface runoff from individual rain events to trigger warming and thaw, and the acceleration of thaw caused by consecutive wet and snowy years. As northern high-latitudes become warmer and wetter, and weather events become more extreme, the importance of these controls on soil warming and thaw is likely to increase.

     
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  10. ### Access Photos of ~50 permaforst boreholes and associated cores can be accessed and downloaded from the 'AR\_Fire\_Core_Photos' directory via: [https://arcticdata.io/data/10.18739/A2251FM9P/](https://arcticdata.io/data/10.18739/A2251FM9P/) ### Overview The Anaktuvuk River tundra fire burned more than 1,000 square kilometers of permafrost-affected arctic tundra in northern Alaska in 2007. The fire is the largest historical recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. Fifty percent of the burn area is underlain by Yedoma permafrost that is characterized by extremely high ground-ice content of organic-rich, silty buried soils and the occurrence of large, syngenetic polygonal ice wedges. Given the high ground-ice content of this terrain, Yedoma is thought to be among the most vulnerable to fire-induced thermokarst in the Arctic. With this dataset, we update observations on near-surface permafrost in the Anaktuvuk River tundra fire burn area from 2009 to 2023 using repeat airborne LiDAR-derived elevation data, ground temperature measurements, and cryostratigraphic studies. We have provided all of the data that has gone into an analysis and resulting paper that has been submitted for peer review at the journal Scientific Reports. The datasets include: - 1 m spatial resolution airborne LiDAR-derived digital terrain models from the summers of 2009, 2014, and 2021. - The area in which thaw subsidence was detected in the multi-temporal LiDAR data using the Geomorphic Change Detection software. - A terrain unit map developed for the 50 square kilometer study area. - Ground temperature time series measurements for a logger located in the burned area and a logger located in an unburned area. The ground temperature data consist of daily mean measurements at a depth of 0.15 m (active layer) and 1.00 m (permafrost) from July 2009 to August 2023. - Photos ~50 permafrost boreholes and the associated cores collected there. - A borehole log and notes pdf also accompanies our studies on the cryostratigraphy of permafrost post-fire and our observations on the recovery of permafrost. 
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