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  1. This dataset reports Beryllium-7 concentrations from water samples collected on the MOSAiC expedition, PS122, aboard R/V Polarstern in the Central Arctic Ocean during 2019-2020. 
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  2. Abstract

    The distributions of iodate and iodide were measured along the GEOTRACES GP15 meridional transect at 152°W from the shelf of Alaska to Papeete, Tahiti. The transect included oxygenated waters near the shelf of Alaska, the full water column in the central basin in the North Pacific Basin, the upper water column spanning across seasonally mixed regimes in the north, oligotrophic regimes in the central gyre, and the equatorial upwelling. Iodide concentrations are highest in the permanently stratified tropical mixed layers, which reflect accumulation due to light‐dependent biological processes, and decline rapidly below the euphotic zone. Vertical mixing coefficients (Kz), derived from complementary7Be data, enabled iodide oxidation rates to be estimated at two stations. Iodide half‐lives of 3–4 years show the importance of seasonal mixing processes in explaining north‐south differences in the transect, and also contribute to the decrease in iodide concentrations with depth below the mixed layer. These estimated half‐lives are consistent with a recent global iodine model. No evidence was found for significant inputs of iodine from the Alaskan continental margin, but there is a significant enrichment of iodide in bottom waters overlying deep sea sediments from the interior of the basin.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    Naturally formed forest patches known as tree islands are found within lower-statured wetland matrices throughout the world, where they contrast sharply with the surrounding vegetation. In some coastal wetlands they are embedded in former freshwater marshes that are currently exposed to saltwater intrusion and mangrove encroachment associated with accelerating sea-level rise. In this study we resurveyed tree composition and determined environmental conditions in tree islands of the coastal Florida Everglades that had been examined two decades earlier. We asked whether tree islands in this coastal transition zone were differentiated geomorphologically as well as compositionally, and whether favorable geomorphology enabled coastal forest type(s) to maintain their compositional integrity against rising seas. Patterns of variation in geomorphology and soils among forest types were evident, but were dwarfed by differences between forest and adjacent wetlands. Tree island surfaces were elevated by 12–44 cm, and 210Pb analyses indicated that their current rates of vertical accretion were more rapid than those of surrounding ecosystems. Tree island soils were deeper and more phosphorus-rich than in the adjoining matrix. Salinity decreased interiorward in both tree island and marsh, but porewater was fresher in forest than marsh in Mixed Swamp Forest, midway along the coastal gradient where tropical hardwoods were most abundant. Little decrease in the abundance of tropical hardwood species nor increase in halophytes was observed during the study period. Our data suggest that geomorphological differences between organic tree island and marl marsh, perhaps driven by groundwater upwelling through more transmissive tree island soils, contributed to the forests’ compositional stability, though this stasis may be short-lived despite management efforts. 
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  4. Abstract

    Atmospheric deposition of aerosols transported from the continents is an important source of nutrient and pollutant trace elements (TEs) to the surface ocean. During the U.S. GEOTRACES GP15 Pacific Meridional Transect between Alaska and Tahiti (September–November 2018), aerosol samples were collected over the North Pacific and equatorial Pacific and analyzed for a suite of TEs, including Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Sampling coincided with the annual minimum in dust transport from Asia, providing an opportunity to quantify aerosol TE concentrations and deposition during the low dust season. Nevertheless, peak concentrations of “crustal” TEs measured at ∼40–50°N (∼145 pmol/m3Fe) were associated with transport from northern Asia, with lower concentrations (36 ± 14 pmol/m3Fe) over the equatorial Pacific. Relative to crustal abundances, equatorial Pacific aerosols typically had higher TE enrichment factors than North Pacific aerosols. In contrast, aerosol V was more enriched over the North Pacific, presumably due to greater supply to this region from oil combustion products. Bulk deposition velocity (Vbulk) was calculated along the transect using the surface ocean decay inventory of the naturally occurring radionuclide,7Be, and aerosol7Be activity. Deposition velocities were significantly higher (4,570 ± 1,146 m/d) within the Intertropical Convergence Zone than elsewhere (1,764 ± 261 m/d) due to aerosol scavenging by intense rainfall. Daily deposition fluxes to the central Pacific during the low dust season were calculated using Vbulkand aerosol TE concentration data, with Fe fluxes ranging from 19 to 258 nmol/m2/d.

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  5. Abstract

    Deposition of aerosols to the surface ocean is an important factor affecting primary production in the surface ocean. However, the sources and fluxes of aerosols and associated trace elements remain poorly defined. Aerosol210Pb,210Po, and7Be data were collected on US GEOTRACES cruise GP15 (Pacific Meridional Transect, 152°W; 2018).210Pb fluxes are low close to the Alaskan margin, increase to a maximum at ∼43°N, then decrease to lower values. There is good agreement between210Pb fluxes and long‐term land‐based fluxes during the SEAREX program (1970–1980s), as well as between GP15 and GP16 (East Pacific Zonal Transect, 12°S; 2013) at adjacent stations. A normalized fractionf(7Be,210Pb) is used to discern aerosols with upper (highf) versus lower (lowf) troposphere sources. Alaskan/North Pacific aerosols show significant continental influence while equatorial/South Pacific aerosols are supplied to the marine boundary layer from the upper troposphere. Lithogenic trace elements Al and Ti show inverse correlations withf(7Be,210Pb), supporting a continental boundary layer provenance while anthropogenic Pb shows no clear relationship withf(7Be,210Pb). All but four samples have210Po/210Pb activity ratios <0.2 suggesting short aerosol residence time. Among the four samples (210Po/210Pb = 0.42–0.88), two suggest an upper troposphere source and longer aerosol residence time while the remaining two cannot be explained by long aerosol residence time nor a significant component of dust. We hypothesize that enrichments of210Po in them are linked to Po enrichments in the sea surface microlayer, possibly through Po speciation as a dissolved organic or dimethyl polonide species.

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  6. Arctic Ocean properties and processes are highly relevant to the regional and global coupled climate system, yet still scarcely observed, especially in winter. Team OCEAN conducted a full year of physical oceanography observations as part of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), a drift with the Arctic sea ice from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the program to characterize the Arctic Ocean system in unprecedented detail, from the seafloor to the air-sea ice-ocean interface, from sub-mesoscales to pan-Arctic. The oceanographic measurements were coordinated with the other teams to explore the ocean physics and linkages to the climate and ecosystem. This paper introduces the major components of the physical oceanography program and complements the other team overviews of the MOSAiC observational program. Team OCEAN’s sampling strategy was designed around hydrographic ship-, ice- and autonomous platform-based measurements to improve the understanding of regional circulation and mixing processes. Measurements were carried out both routinely, with a regular schedule, and in response to storms or opening leads. Here we present along-drift time series of hydrographic properties, allowing insights into the seasonal and regional evolution of the water column from winter in the Laptev Sea to early summer in Fram Strait: freshening of the surface, deepening of the mixed layer, increase in temperature and salinity of the Atlantic Water. We also highlight the presence of Canada Basin deep water intrusions and a surface meltwater layer in leads. MOSAiC most likely was the most comprehensive program ever conducted over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. While data analysis and interpretation are ongoing, the acquired datasets will support a wide range of physical oceanography and multi-disciplinary research. They will provide a significant foundation for assessing and advancing modeling capabilities in the Arctic Ocean. 
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