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  1. Chua Chin Heng, Matthew (Ed.)
    Stroke rehabilitation seeks to accelerate motor recovery by training functional activities, but may have minimal impact because of insufficient training doses. In animals, training hundreds of functional motions in the first weeks after stroke can substantially boost upper extremity recovery. The optimal quantity of functional motions to boost recovery in humans is currently unknown, however, because no practical tools exist to measure them during rehabilitation training. Here, we present PrimSeq, a pipeline to classify and count functional motions trained in stroke rehabilitation. Our approach integrates wearable sensors to capture upper-body motion, a deep learning model to predict motion sequences, and an algorithm to tally motions. The trained model accurately decomposes rehabilitation activities into elemental functional motions, outperforming competitive machine learning methods. PrimSeq furthermore quantifies these motions at a fraction of the time and labor costs of human experts. We demonstrate the capabilities of PrimSeq in previously unseen stroke patients with a range of upper extremity motor impairment. We expect that our methodological advances will support the rigorous measurement required for quantitative dosing trials in stroke rehabilitation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2023
  2. Automatic action identification from video and kinematic data is an important machine learning problem with applications ranging from robotics to smart health. Most existing works focus on identifying coarse actions such as running, climbing, or cutting a vegetable, which have relatively long durations. This is an important limitation for applications that require the identification of subtle motions at high temporal resolution. For example, in stroke recovery, quantifying rehabilitation dose requires differentiating motions with sub-second durations. Our goal is to bridge this gap. To this end, we introduce a large-scale, multimodal dataset, StrokeRehab, as a new action-recognition benchmark that includes subtle short-duration actions labeled at a high temporal resolution. These short-duration actions are called functional primitives, and consist of reaches, transports, repositions, stabilizations, and idles. The dataset consists of high-quality Inertial Measurement Unit sensors and video data of 41 stroke-impaired patients performing activities of daily living like feeding, brushing teeth, etc. We show that current state-of-the-art models based on segmentation produce noisy predictions when applied to these data, which often leads to overcounting of actions. To address this, we propose a novel approach for high-resolution action identification, inspired by speech-recognition techniques, which is based on a sequence-to-sequence model that directly predictsmore »the sequence of actions. This approach outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on the StrokeRehab dataset, as well as on the standard benchmark datasets 50Salads, Breakfast, and Jigsaws.« less
  3. We show that bringing intermediate layers' representations of two augmented versions of an image closer together in self-supervised learning helps to improve the momentum contrastive (MoCo) method. To this end, in addition to the contrastive loss, we minimize the mean squared error between the intermediate layer representations or make their cross-correlation matrix closer to an identity matrix. Both loss objectives either outperform standard MoCo, or achieve similar performances on three diverse medical imaging datasets: NIH-Chest Xrays, Breast Cancer Histopathology, and Diabetic Retinopathy. The gains of the improved MoCo are especially large in a low-labeled data regime (e.g. 1% labeled data) with an average gain of 5% across three datasets. We analyze the models trained using our novel approach via feature similarity analysis and layer-wise probing. Our analysis reveals that models trained via our approach have higher feature reuse compared to a standard MoCo and learn informative features earlier in the network. Finally, by comparing the output probability distribution of models fine-tuned on small versus large labeled data, we conclude that our proposed method of pre-training leads to lower Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, as compared to a standard MoCo. This provides additional evidence that our proposed method learns more informative features in themore »pre-training phase which could be leveraged in a low-labeled data regime.« less
  4. Abstract

    During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, rapid and accurate triage of patients at the emergency department is critical to inform decision-making. We propose a data-driven approach for automatic prediction of deterioration risk using a deep neural network that learns from chest X-ray images and a gradient boosting model that learns from routine clinical variables. Our AI prognosis system, trained using data from 3661 patients, achieves an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.786 (95% CI: 0.745–0.830) when predicting deterioration within 96 hours. The deep neural network extracts informative areas of chest X-ray images to assist clinicians in interpreting the predictions and performs comparably to two radiologists in a reader study. In order to verify performance in a real clinical setting, we silently deployed a preliminary version of the deep neural network at New York University Langone Health during the first wave of the pandemic, which produced accurate predictions in real-time. In summary, our findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed system for assisting front-line physicians in the triage of COVID-19 patients.