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    We study the evolution of isolated self-interacting dark matter halos using spherically symmetric gravothermal equations allowing for the scattering cross-section to be velocity dependent. We focus our attention on the large class of models where the core is in the long mean free path regime for a substantial time. We find that the temporal evolution exhibits an approximate universality that allows velocity-dependent models to be mapped onto velocity-independent models in a well-defined way using the scattering time-scale computed when the halo achieves its minimum central density. We show how this time-scale depends on the halo parameters and an average cross-section computed at the central velocity dispersion when the central density is minimum. The predicted collapse time is fully defined by the scattering time-scale, with negligible variation due to the velocity dependence of the cross-section. We derive new self-similar solutions that provide an analytic understanding of the numerical results.

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  2. ABSTRACT We combine the isothermal Jeans model and the model of adiabatic halo contraction into a semi-analytic procedure for computing the density profile of self-interacting dark-matter (SIDM) haloes with the gravitational influence from the inhabitant galaxies. The model agrees well with cosmological SIDM simulations over the entire core-forming stage up to the onset of gravothermal core-collapse. Using this model, we show that the halo response to baryons is more diverse in SIDM than in CDM and depends sensitively on galaxy size, a desirable feature in the context of the structural diversity of bright dwarfs. The fast speed of the method facilitates analyses that would be challenging for numerical simulations – notably, we quantify the SIDM halo response as functions of the baryonic properties, on a fine mesh grid spanned by the baryon-to-total-mass ratio, Mb/Mvir, and galaxy compactness, r1/2/Rvir; we show with high statistical precision that for typical Milky-Way-like systems, the SIDM profiles are similar to their CDM counterparts; and we delineate the regime of core-collapse in the Mb/Mvir − r1/2/Rvir space, for a given cross section and concentration. Finally, we compare the isothermal Jeans model with the more sophisticated gravothermal fluid model, and show that the former yields faster core formation and agrees better with cosmological simulations. We attribute the difference to whether the target CDM halo is used as a boundary condition or as the initial condition for the gravothermal evolution, and thus comment on possible improvements of the fluid model. We have made our model publicly available at 
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    We explore the properties of Milky Way (MW) subhaloes in self-interacting dark matter models for moderate cross-sections of 1–5 cm2 g−1 using high-resolution zoom-in N-body simulations. We include the gravitational potential of a baryonic disc and bulge matched to the MW, which is critical for getting accurate predictions. The predicted number and distribution of subhaloes within the host halo are similar for 1 and 5 cm2 g−1 models, and they agree with observations of MW satellite galaxies only if subhaloes with peak circular velocity over all time >7 km s−1 are able to form galaxies. We do not find distinctive signatures in the pericentre distribution of the subhaloes that could help distinguish the models. Using an analytical model to extend the simulation results, we are able to show that subhaloes in models with cross-sections between 1 and 5 cm2 g−1 are not dense enough to match the densest ultrafaint and classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the MW. This motivates exploring velocity-dependent cross-sections with values larger than 5 cm2 g−1 at the velocities relevant for the satellites such that core collapse would occur in some of the ultrafaint and classical dwarf spheroidals.

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  4. Abstract

    We analyze circular velocity profiles of seven ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) that are isolated and gas-rich. Assuming that the dark matter halos of these UDGs have a Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile or a Read density profile (which allows for constant-density cores), the inferred halo concentrations are systematically lower than the cosmological median, even as low as −0.6 dex (about 5σaway) in some cases. Alternatively, similar fits can be obtained with a density profile that scales roughly as 1/r2for radii larger than a few kiloparsecs. Both solutions require the radius where the halo circular velocity peaks (Rmax) to be much larger than the median expectation. Surprisingly, we find an overabundance of such large-Rmaxhalos in the IllustrisTNG dark-matter-only simulations compared to the Gaussian expectation. These halos form late and have higher spins compared to median halos of similar masses. The inner densities of the most extreme among these late-forming halos are higher than their NFW counterparts, leading to a ∼1/r2density profile. However, the two well-resolved UDGs in our sample strongly prefer lower dark matter densities in the center than the simulated ones. Comparing to IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulations, we also find a tension in getting both low enough circular velocities and high enough halo mass to accommodate the measurements. Our results indicate that the gas-rich UDGs present a significant challenge for galaxy formation models.

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  5. ABSTRACT The presence of an invisible substructure has previously been detected in the gravitational lens galaxy SDSSJ0946+1006 through its perturbation of the lensed images. Using flexible models for the main halo and the subhalo perturbation, we demonstrate that the subhalo has an extraordinarily high central density and steep density slope. We robustly infer the subhalo’s projected mass within 1 kpc to be ∼2–3.7 × 109 M⊙ at >95 per cent CL for all our lens models, while the average log-slope of the subhalo’s projected density profile over the radial range 0.75–1.25 kpc is constrained to be steeper than isothermal (γ2D ≲ −1). By modeling the subhalo light, we infer a conservative upper bound on its luminosity LV < 1.2 × 108L⊙ at 95 per cent CL that shows that the perturber is dark matter dominated. We analyse lensing galaxy analogues in the Illustris TNG100-1 simulation over many lines of sight, and find hundreds of subhalos that achieve a mass within 1 kpc ≳ 2 × 109M⊙. However, less than 1 per cent of the mock observations yield a log-slope steep enough to be consistent with our lensing models, and they all have stellar masses exceeding that allowed by observations by an order of magnitude or more. We conclude that the presence of such a dark highly concentrated subhalo is unexpected in a Lambda cold dark matter universe. While it remains to be determined whether this tension can be reduced by adding more complexity to the primary lens model, it is not significantly alleviated if the perturber is assumed to be a LOS structure, rather than a subhalo. 
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  6. ABSTRACT We demonstrate that the perturbations of strongly lensed images by low-mass dark matter subhaloes are significantly impacted by the concentration of the perturbing subhalo. For subhalo concentrations expected in Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM), significant constraints on the concentration can be obtained at Hubble Space Telescope (HST) resolution for subhaloes with masses larger than about $10^{10}\, {\rm M}_\odot$. Constraints are also possible for lower mass subhaloes, if their concentrations are higher than the expected scatter in CDM. We also find that the concentration of lower mass perturbers down to $\sim 10^8\, {\rm M}_\odot$ can be well constrained with a resolution of ∼0.01 arcsec, which is achievable with long-baseline interferometry. Subhalo concentration also plays a critical role in the detectability of a perturbation, such that only high-concentration perturbers with mass $\lesssim 10^9\, {\rm M}_\odot$ are likely to be detected at HST resolution. If scatter in the ΛCDM mass–concentration relation is not accounted for during lens modelling, the inferred subhalo mass can be biased by up to a factor of 3 (6) for subhaloes of mass $10^9 \, {\rm M}_\odot \,(10^{10} \, {\rm M}_\odot$); this bias can be eliminated if one varies both mass and concentration during lens fitting. Alternatively, one may robustly infer the projected mass within the subhalo’s perturbation radius, defined by its distance to the critical curve of the lens being perturbed. With a sufficient number of detections, these strategies will make it possible to constrain the halo mass–concentration relation at low masses in addition to the mass function, offering a probe of dark matter physics as well as the small-scale primordial power spectrum. 
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    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have received great attention over the past decade as solutions to the small-scale puzzles of astrophysics. Though there are different implementations of dark matter (DM) self-interactions in N-body codes of structure formation, there has not been a systematic study to compare the predictions of these different implementations. We investigate the implementation of dark matter self-interactions in two simulation codes:gizmo and arepo. We begin with identical initial conditions for an isolated 1010 M⊙ dark matter halo and investigate the evolution of the density and velocity dispersion profiles in gizmo and arepo for SIDM cross-section over mass of 1, 5, and 50 $\rm cm^2\, g^{-1}$. Our tests are restricted to the core expansion phase, where the core density decreases and core radius increases with time. We find better than 30 per cent agreement between the codes for the density profile in this phase of evolution, with the agreement improving at higher resolution. We find that varying code-specific SIDM parameters changes the central halo density by less than 10 per cent outside of the convergence radius. We argue that SIDM core formation is robust across the two different schemes and conclude that these codes can reliably differentiate between cross-sections of 1, 5, and 50 $\rm cm^2\, g^{-1}$, but finer distinctions would require further investigation.

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    We analyse strongly lensed images in eight galaxy clusters to measure their dark matter density profiles in the radial region between 10 kpc and 150 kpc, and use this to constrain the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter (DM) particles. We infer the mass profiles of the central DM haloes, bright central galaxies, key member galaxies, and DM subhaloes for the member galaxies for all eight clusters using the qlens code. The inferred DM halo surface densities are fit to a self-interacting dark matter model, which allows us to constrain the self-interaction cross-section over mass σ/m. When our full method is applied to mock data generated from two clusters in the Illustris-TNG simulation, we find results consistent with no dark matter self-interactions as expected. For the eight observed clusters with average relative velocities of $1458_{-81}^{+80}$ km s−1, we infer $\sigma /m = 0.082_{-0.021}^{+0.027} \rm cm^2\, g^{ -1}$ and $\sigma /m \lt 0.13~ \rm cm^2\, g^{ -1}$ at the 95 per cent confidence level.

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