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    Abstract Computational simulation experiments increasingly inform modern biological research, and bring with them the need to provide ways to annotate, archive, share and reproduce the experiments performed. These simulations increasingly require extensive collaboration among modelers, experimentalists, and engineers. The Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines outline the information needed to share simulation experiments. SED-ML is a computer-readable format for the information outlined by MIASE, created as a community project and supported by many investigators and software tools. The first versions of SED-ML focused on deterministic and stochastic simulations of models. Level 1 Version 4 of SED-ML substantially expands these capabilities to cover additional types of models, model languages, parameter estimations, simulations and analyses of models, and analyses and visualizations of simulation results. To facilitate consistent practices across the community, Level 1 Version 4 also more clearly describes the use of SED-ML constructs, and includes numerous concrete validation rules. SED-ML is supported by a growing ecosystem of investigators, model languages, and software tools, including eight languages for constraint-based, kinetic, qualitative, rule-based, and spatial models, over 20 simulation tools, visual editors, model repositories, and validators. Additional information about SED-ML is available at https://sed-ml.org/ . 
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  4. During the COVID-19 pandemic, mathematical modeling of disease transmission has become a cornerstone of key state decisions. To advance the state-of-the-art host viral modeling to handle future pandemics, many scientists working on related issues assembled to discuss the topics. These discussions exposed the reproducibility crisis that leads to inability to reuse and integrate models. This document summarizes these discussions, presents difficulties, and mentions existing efforts towards future solutions that will allow future model utility and integration. We argue that without addressing these challenges, scientists will have diminished ability to build, disseminate, and implement high-impact multi-scale modeling that is needed to understand the health crises we face. 
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  6. Abstract Computational models have great potential to accelerate bioscience, bioengineering, and medicine. However, it remains challenging to reproduce and reuse simulations, in part, because the numerous formats and methods for simulating various subsystems and scales remain siloed by different software tools. For example, each tool must be executed through a distinct interface. To help investigators find and use simulation tools, we developed BioSimulators (https://biosimulators.org), a central registry of the capabilities of simulation tools and consistent Python, command-line and containerized interfaces to each version of each tool. The foundation of BioSimulators is standards, such as CellML, SBML, SED-ML and the COMBINE archive format, and validation tools for simulation projects and simulation tools that ensure these standards are used consistently. To help modelers find tools for particular projects, we have also used the registry to develop recommendation services. We anticipate that BioSimulators will help modelers exchange, reproduce, and combine simulations. 
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