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  1. Rock salt caverns have been extensively used as reliable repositories for hazardous waste such as nuclear waste, oil or compressed gases. Undisturbed rock salt deposits in nature are usually impermeable and have very low porosity. However, rock salt formations under excavation stresses can develop crack networks, which increase their porosities; and in the case of a connected crack network within the media, rock salt may become permeable. Although the relationship between the permeability of rock salt and the applied stresses has been reported in the literature, a microscopic study that investigates the properties influencing this relationship, such as the evolution of texture and internal stresses, has yet to be conducted. This study employs in situ 3D synchrotron micro-computed tomography and 3D X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) on two small-scale polycrystalline rock salt specimens to investigate the evolution of the texture and internal stresses within the specimens. The 3DXRD technique measures the 3D crystal structure and lattice strains within rock salt grains. The specimens were prepared under 1D compression conditions and have shown an initial {111} preferred texture, a dominant {110}〈1 1 0〉 slip system and no fully connected crack network. The {111} preferred texture under the unconfined compression experiment became stronger, whilemore »the {111}〈1 1 0〉 slip system became more prominent. The specimens did not have a fully connected crack network until applied axial stresses reached about 30 MPa, at a point where the impermeability of the material becomes compromised due to the development of multiple major cracks.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We use comparisons between the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral Field Spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey and equilibrium galaxy models to infer the importance of disc fading in the transition of spirals into lenticular (S0) galaxies. The local S0 population has both higher photometric concentration and lower stellar spin than spiral galaxies of comparable mass and we test whether this separation can be accounted for by passive aging alone. We construct a suite of dynamically self-consistent galaxy models, with a bulge, disc, and halo using the galactics code. The dispersion-dominated bulge is given a uniformly old stellar population, while the disc is given a current star formation rate putting it on the main sequence, followed by sudden instantaneous quenching. We then generate mock observables (r-band images, stellar velocity, and dispersion maps) as a function of time since quenching for a range of bulge/total (B/T) mass ratios. The disc fading leads to a decline in measured spin as the bulge contribution becomes more dominant, and also leads to increased concentration. However, the quantitative changes observed after 5 Gyr of disc fading cannot account for all of the observed difference. We see similar results if we instead subdivide our SAMI Galaxy Survey sample by starmore »formation (relative to the main sequence). We use EAGLE simulations to also take into account progenitor bias, using size evolution to infer quenching time. The EAGLE simulations suggest that the progenitors of current passive galaxies typically have slightly higher spin than present day star-forming disc galaxies of the same mass. As a result, progenitor bias moves the data further from the disc fading model scenario, implying that intrinsic dynamical evolution must be important in the transition from star-forming discs to passive discs.« less

    Tidal features in the outskirts of galaxies yield unique information about their past interactions and are a key prediction of the hierarchical structure formation paradigm. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is poised to deliver deep observations for potentially millions of objects with visible tidal features, but the inference of galaxy interaction histories from such features is not straightforward. Utilizing automated techniques and human visual classification in conjunction with realistic mock images produced using the NewHorizon cosmological simulation, we investigate the nature, frequency, and visibility of tidal features and debris across a range of environments and stellar masses. In our simulated sample, around 80 per cent of the flux in the tidal features around Milky Way or greater mass galaxies is detected at the 10-yr depth of the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (30–31 mag arcsec−2), falling to 60 per cent assuming a shallower final depth of 29.5 mag arcsec−2. The fraction of total flux found in tidal features increases towards higher masses, rising to 10 per cent for the most massive objects in our sample (M⋆ ∼ 1011.5 M⊙). When observed at sufficient depth, such objects frequently exhibit many distinct tidal features with complex shapes. The interpretation and characterization of such features varies significantly withmore »image depth and object orientation, introducing significant biases in their classification. Assuming the data reduction pipeline is properly optimized, we expect the Rubin Observatory to be capable of recovering much of the flux found in the outskirts of Milky Way mass galaxies, even at intermediate redshifts (z < 0.2).

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