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  1. We present a novel method that automatically measures quality of sentential paraphrasing. Our method balances two conflicting criteria: semantic similarity and lexical diversity. Using a diverse annotated corpus, we built learning to rank models on edit distance, BLEU, ROUGE, and cosine similarity features. Extrinsic evaluation on STS Benchmark and ParaBank Evaluation datasets resulted in a model ensemble with moderate to high quality. We applied our method on both small benchmarking and large-scale datasets as resources for the community.
  2. The transcriptional coactivator YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1) is a critical nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway. The serine/threonine protein kinases STK3/4 and LATS1/2, core components of the Hippo pathway, phosphorylate and inhibit YAP1 nuclear localization. Previously, we reported that the interaction of nuclear YAP1 with androgen receptor (AR) might play a critical role in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic relapse (Kuser-Abali et al., Nat. Commun. 2015). Here, we investigated the regulation of YAP1 by androgens in isogenic, androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen non-responsive C4-2 prostate cancer cell models. We demonstrated that androgen suppressed the inhibitory phospho-Ser127 site on YAP1 in LNCaPmore »cells, but the effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127 was modest in C4-2 cells. In agreement with this observation, androgen increased the presence of nuclear YAP1 in LNCaP cells, whereas regardless of androgen exposure the YAP1 protein was primarily expressed in C4-2 cell nuclei. We also demonstrated that androgen exposure suppressed the levels of phospho-Ser127 induced by okadaic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling by enzalutamide reversed the inhibitory effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127, which coincided with the inhibition of YAP1 nuclear localization. Similarly, the genetic inhibition of AR signaling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced phospho-Ser127 levels. Additionally, the silencing of the STK3/4 and LATS1/2 signaling by siRNA resulted in increases in YAP1 protein levels. Furthermore, our analysis of the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) prostate adenocarcinoma data set indicates that the levels of YAP1 and AR mRNA expression were positively correlated in prostate cancer clinical samples. These observations suggest that AR signaling promotes YAP1 nuclear localization by suppressing phospho-Ser127, possibly through the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and supporting a new mechanism of YAP1 regulation and YAP1-mediated cancer cell growth and survival.« less
  3. The nature and extent of the spin-entanglement in the triplet-triplet biexciton with total spin zero in correlated-electron π-conjugated systems continues to be an enigma. Differences in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of free triplets versus the triplet-triplet can give a measure of the entanglement. This, however, requires theoretical understandings of transient absorptions from the optical spin-singlet, the lowest spin-triplet exciton, as well as from the triplet-triplet state, whose spectra are often overlapping and hence difficult to distinguish. We present a many-electron theory of the electronic structure of the triplet-triplet, and of complete wavelength-dependent excited state absorptions (ESAs) from all threemore »states in a heteroacene dimer of interest in the field of intramolecular singlet fission. The theory allows direct comparisons of ESAs with existing experiments as well as experimental predictions, and gives physical understandings of transient absorptions within a pictorial exciton basis that can be carried over to other experimental systems.« less
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