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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  3. Santos, AL (Ed.)
    Peroxisomes are key regulators of cellular and metabolic homeostasis. These organelles play important roles in redox metabolism, the oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), and the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids. Given the essential role of peroxisomes in cellular homeostasis, peroxisomal dysfunction has been linked to various pathological conditions, tissue functional decline, and aging. In the past few decades, a variety of cellular signaling and metabolic changes have been reported to be associated with defective peroxisomes, suggesting that many cellular processes and functions depend on peroxisomes. Peroxisomes communicate with other subcellular organelles, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), andmore »lysosomes. These inter-organelle communications are highly linked to the key mechanisms by which cells surveil defective peroxisomes and mount adaptive responses to protect them from damages. In this review, we highlight the major cellular changes that accompany peroxisomal dysfunction and peroxisomal inter-organelle communication through membrane contact sites, metabolic signaling, and retrograde signaling. We also discuss the age-related decline of peroxisomal protein import and its role in animal aging and age-related diseases. Unlike other organelle stress response pathways, such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the ER and mitochondria, the cellular signaling pathways that mediate stress responses to malfunctioning peroxisomes have not been systematically studied and investigated. Here, we coin these signaling pathways as “peroxisomal stress response pathways”. Understanding peroxisomal stress response pathways and how peroxisomes communicate with other organelles are important and emerging areas of peroxisome research.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 19, 2023
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  7. Abstract We present Raman-scattering results for three materials, CeB 6 , TbInO 3 , and YbRu 2 Ge 2 , to illustrate the essential aspects of crystal-field (CF) excitations and quadrupolar fluctuations of 4 f -electron systems. For CF excitations, we illustrate how the 4 f orbits are split by spin-orbit coupling and CF potential by presenting spectra for inter- and intra-multiplet excitations over a large energy range. We discuss identification of the CF ground state and establishment of low-energy CF level scheme from the symmetry and energy of measured CF excitations. In addition, we demonstrate that the CF linewidthmore »is a sensitive probe of electron correlation by virtue of self-energy effect. For quadrupolar fluctuations, we discuss both ferroquadrupolar (FQ) and antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) cases. Long-wavelength quadrupolar fluctuations of the same symmetry as the FQ order parameter persists well above the transition temperature, from which the strength of electronic intersite quadrupolar interaction can be evaluated. The tendency towards AFQ ordering induces ferromagnetic correlation between neighboring 4 f -ion sites, leading to long-wavelength magnetic fluctuations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  9. Research on interactions between caregivers and children have long been reported in science museum experiences. However, the interactions between caregivers and children in home environments are rarely investigated. By comparison, research on the experience of the engineering design challenge activities in a family context is even less. This case study aimed to examine interactions of two families in their home as they engaged with engineering design challenge kits that have the potential to support children’s foundational understanding of STEM concepts. Using social-cultural constructivism as a lens, about 370 minutes of video data was analyzed. Data coding revealed three types ofmore »interactions that facilitated children’s understanding of STEM concepts: teaching, build up, and synthesized moments. These three moments were interdependent but included different emphasis of caregivers’ and children’s engagement. Although there is a limitation of this study to generalize the findings, our results contribute to understand how caregivers and children play with the materials, tools, and their ideas in their home environments and how caregivers used different facilitation approaches without any training prior to engaging with the engineering kits.« less
  10. Context. In February 2017 the blazar OJ 287, one of the best super-massive binary-black-hole-system candidates, was detected for the first time at very high energies (VHEs; E  > 100 GeV) with the ground-based γ -ray observatory VERITAS. Aims. Very high energy γ rays are thought to be produced in the near vicinity of the central engine in active galactic nuclei. For this reason, and with the main goal of providing useful information for the characterization of the physical mechanisms connected with the observed teraelectronvolt flaring event, we investigate the parsec-scale source properties by means of high-resolution very long baseline interferometry observations.more »Methods. We use 86 GHz Global Millimeter-VLBI Array (GMVA) observations from 2015 to 2017 and combine them with additional multiwavelength radio observations at different frequencies from other monitoring programs. We investigate the source structure by modeling the brightness distribution with two-dimensional Gaussian components in the visibility plane. Results. In the GMVA epoch following the source VHE activity, we find a new jet feature (labeled K) at ∼0.2 mas from the core region and located in between two quasi-stationary components (labeled S1 and S2). Multiple periods of enhanced activity are detected at different radio frequencies before and during the VHE flaring state. Conclusions. Based on the findings of this work, we identify as a possible trigger for the VHE flaring emission during the early months of 2017 the passage of a new jet feature through a recollimation shock (represented by the model-fit component S1) in a region of the jet located at a de-projected distance of ∼10 pc from the radio core.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023