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  1. Abstract

    We analyze the circumgalactic medium (CGM) for eight commonly-used cosmological codes in the AGORA collaboration. The codes are calibrated to use identical initial conditions, cosmology, heating and cooling, and star formation thresholds, but each evolves with its own unique code architecture and stellar feedback implementation. Here, we analyze the results of these simulations in terms of the structure, composition, and phase dynamics of the CGM. We show properties such as metal distribution, ionization levels, and kinematics are effective tracers of the effects of the different code feedback and implementation methods, and as such they can be highly divergent between simulations. This is merely a fiducial set of models, against which we will in the future compare multiple feedback recipes for each code. Nevertheless, we find that the large parameter space these simulations establish can help disentangle the different variables that affect observable quantities in the CGM, e.g., showing that abundances for ions with higher ionization energy are more strongly determined by the simulation’s metallicity, while abundances for ions with lower ionization energy are more strongly determined by the gas density and temperature.

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  2. Abstract

    Large diffuse galaxies are hard to find, but understanding the environments where they live, their numbers, and ultimately their origins, is of intense interest and importance for galaxy formation and evolution. Using Subaru’s Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program, we perform a systematic search for low surface brightness galaxies and present novel and effective methods for detecting and modeling them. As a case study, we surveyed 922 Milky Way analogs in the nearby Universe (0.01 <z< 0.04) and built a large sample of satellite galaxies that are outliers in the mass–size relation. These “ultra-puffy” galaxies (UPGs), defined to be 1.5σabove the average mass–size relation, represent the tail of the satellite size distribution. We find that each MW analog hostsNUPG= 0.31 ± 0.05 UPGs on average, which is consistent with but slightly lower than the observed abundance at this halo mass in the Local Volume. We also construct a sample of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in MW analogs and find an abundance ofNUDG= 0.44 ± 0.05 per host. With literature results, we confirm that the UDG abundance scales with the host halo mass following a sublinear power law. We argue that our definition of UPGs, which is based on the mass–size relation, is more physically motivated than the common definition of UDGs, which depends on the surface brightness and size cuts and thus yields different surface mass density cuts for quenched and star-forming galaxies.

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    We present the results of high-resolution adaptive optics imaging observations of four kinematically identified recoiling supermassive black hole (rSMBH) candidates. Ellipse fitting was carried out to measure the spatial offset between the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the centre of the host galaxy. Two rSMBH candidates (J1713 + 3523 and J2054 + 0049) are found to be offset AGN. However, the Very Long Baseline Array 1.5 GHz continuum imaging observation and spectral decomposition of the [O iii]5007 line suggest that J1713 + 3523 is a dual AGN and its spatial offset is not due to a recoil event. The spatial offset between the AGN and the centre of the host galaxy in J2054 + 0049 is 0.06 ± 0.01 arcsec (201 ± 22 pc). Spectral decomposition of J2054 + 0049 also suggests that it could be a dual AGN system and the measured spatial offset may not be due to a recoil event.

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  4. Abstract

    In a novel approach employing implicit likelihood inference (ILI), also known as likelihood-free inference, we calibrate the parameters of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations against observations, which has previously been unfeasible due to the high computational cost of these simulations. For computational efficiency, we train neural networks as emulators on ∼1000 cosmological simulations from the CAMELS project to estimate simulated observables, taking as input the cosmological and astrophysical parameters, and use these emulators as surrogates for the cosmological simulations. Using the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) and, separately, the stellar mass functions (SMFs) at different redshifts, we perform ILI on selected cosmological and astrophysical parameters (Ωm,σ8, stellar wind feedback, and kinetic black hole feedback) and obtain full six-dimensional posterior distributions. In the performance test, the ILI from the emulated SFRD (SMFs) can recover the target observables with a relative error of 0.17% (0.4%). We find that degeneracies exist between the parameters inferred from the emulated SFRD, confirmed with new full cosmological simulations. We also find that the SMFs can break the degeneracy in the SFRD, which indicates that the SMFs provide complementary constraints for the parameters. Further, we find that a parameter combination inferred from an observationally inferred SFRD reproduces the target observed SFRD very well, whereas, in the case of the SMFs, the inferred and observed SMFs show significant discrepancies that indicate potential limitations of the current galaxy formation modeling and calibration framework, and/or systematic differences and inconsistencies between observations of the SMFs.

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  5. Abstract

    We  present the demography of the dynamics and gas mass fraction of 33 extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with metallicities of 0.015–0.195Zand low stellar masses of 104–108Min the local universe. We conduct deep optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for the low-mass EMPGs with the medium-high resolution (R= 7500) grism of the 8 m Subaru FOCAS IFU instrument by the EMPRESS 3D survey, and investigate the Hαemission of the EMPGs. Exploiting the resolution high enough for the low-mass galaxies, we derive gas dynamics with the Hαlines by the fitting of three-dimensional disk models. We obtain an average maximum rotation velocity (vrot) of 15 ± 3 km s−1and an average intrinsic velocity dispersion (σ0) of 27 ± 10 km s−1for 15 spatially resolved EMPGs out of 33 EMPGs, and find that all 15 EMPGs havevrot/σ0< 1 suggesting dispersion-dominated systems. There is a clear decreasing trend ofvrot/σ0with the decreasing stellar mass and metallicity. We derive the gas mass fraction (fgas) for all 33 EMPGs, and find no clear dependence on stellar mass and metallicity. Thesevrot/σ0andfgastrends should be compared with young high-zgalaxies observed by the forthcoming JWST IFS programs to understand the physical origins of the EMPGs in the local universe.

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  6. Abstract

    We present the statistical redshift distribution of a large sample of low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies identified in the first 200 deg2of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program. Through cross-correlation with the NASA–SDSS Atlas, we find that the majority of objects lie withinz< 0.15 or ∼500 Mpc, yielding a mass range ofM*≈ 107−109Mand a size range ofreff,g≈ 1−8 kpc. We find a peak in the distance distribution within 100 Mpc, corresponding mostly to ∼107Mgalaxies that fall on the known mass–size relation. There is also a tail in the redshift distribution out toz≈ 0.15, comprising more massive (M*= 108− 109M) galaxies at the larger end of our size range. We see tentative evidence that at the higher-mass end (M*> 108M), the LSB galaxies do not form a smooth extension of the mass–size relation of higher-surface-brightness galaxies, perhaps suggesting that the LSB galaxy population is distinct in its formation path.

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  7. Abstract

    We present kinematics of six local extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with low metallicities (0.016–0.098Z) and low stellar masses (104.7–107.6M). Taking deep medium/high-resolution (R∼ 7500) integral-field spectra with 8.2 m Subaru, we resolve the small inner velocity gradients and dispersions of the EMPGs with Hαemission. Carefully masking out substructures originating by inflow and/or outflow, we fit three-dimensional disk models to the observed Hαflux, velocity, and velocity dispersion maps. All the EMPGs show rotational velocities (vrot) of 5–23 km s−1smaller than the velocity dispersions (σ0) of 17–31 km s−1, indicating dispersion-dominated (vrot/σ0= 0.29–0.80 < 1) systems affected by inflow and/or outflow. Except for two EMPGs with large uncertainties, we find that the EMPGs have very large gas-mass fractions offgas≃ 0.9–1.0. Comparing our results with other Hαkinematics studies, we find thatvrot/σ0decreases andfgasincreases with decreasing metallicity, decreasing stellar mass, and increasing specific star formation rate. We also find that simulated high-z(z∼ 7) forming galaxies have gas fractions and dynamics similar to the observed EMPGs. Our EMPG observations and the simulations suggest that primordial galaxies are gas-rich dispersion-dominated systems, which would be identified by the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations atz∼ 7.

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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. ABSTRACT We report the formation of bound star clusters in a sample of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of z ≥ 5 galaxies from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. We find that bound clusters preferentially form in high-pressure clouds with gas surface densities over $10^4\, \mathrm{ M}_{\odot }\, {\rm pc}^{-2}$, where the cloud-scale star formation efficiency is near unity and young stars born in these regions are gravitationally bound at birth. These high-pressure clouds are compressed by feedback-driven winds and/or collisions of smaller clouds/gas streams in highly gas-rich, turbulent environments. The newly formed clusters follow a power-law mass function of dN/dM ∼ M−2. The cluster formation efficiency is similar across galaxies with stellar masses of ∼107–$10^{10}\, \mathrm{ M}_{\odot }$ at z ≥ 5. The age spread of cluster stars is typically a few Myr and increases with cluster mass. The metallicity dispersion of cluster members is ∼0.08 dex in $\rm [Z/H]$ and does not depend on cluster mass significantly. Our findings support the scenario that present-day old globular clusters (GCs) were formed during relatively normal star formation in high-redshift galaxies. Simulations with a stricter/looser star formation model form a factor of a few more/fewer bound clusters per stellar mass formed, while the shape of the mass function is unchanged. Simulations with a lower local star formation efficiency form more stars in bound clusters. The simulated clusters are larger than observed GCs due to finite resolution. Our simulations are among the first cosmological simulations that form bound clusters self-consistently in a wide range of high-redshift galaxies. 
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