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Creators/Authors contains: "Kim, Seung-Hyun"

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  1. Abstract

    The device concept of ferroelectric-based negative capacitance (NC) transistors offers a promising route for achieving energy-efficient logic applications that can outperform the conventional semiconductor technology, while viable operation mechanisms remain a central topic of debate. In this work, we report steep slope switching in MoS2transistors back-gated by single-layer polycrystalline PbZr0.35Ti0.65O3. The devices exhibit current switching ratios up to 8 × 106within an ultra-low gate voltage window of$$V_{{{\mathrm{g}}}} = \pm \! 0.5$$Vg=±0.5V and subthreshold swing (SS) as low as 9.7 mV decade−1at room temperature, transcending the 60 mV decade−1Boltzmann limit without involving additional dielectric layers. Theoretical modeling reveals the dominant role of the metastable polar states within domain walls in enabling the NC mode, which is corroborated by the relation between SS and domain wall density. Our findings shed light on a hysteresis-free mechanism for NC operation, providing a simple yet effective material strategy for developing low-power 2D nanoelectronics.

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  2. Inspired by the unique neurophysiology of the octopus, a hierarchical framework is proposed that simplifies the coordination of multiple soft arms by decomposing control into high‐level decision‐making, low‐level motor activation, and local reflexive behaviors via sensory feedback. When evaluated in the illustrative problem of a model octopus foraging for food, this hierarchical decomposition results in significant improvements relative to end‐to‐end methods. Performance is achieved through a mixed‐modes approach, whereby qualitatively different tasks are addressed via complementary control schemes. Herein, model‐free reinforcement learning is employed for high‐level decision‐making, while model‐based energy shaping takes care of arm‐level motor execution. To render the pairing computationally tenable, a novel neural network energy shaping (NN‐ES) controller is developed, achieving accurate motions with time‐to‐solutions 200 times faster than previous attempts. The hierarchical framework is then successfully deployed in increasingly challenging foraging scenarios, including an arena littered with obstacles in 3D space, demonstrating the viability of the approach.

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  3. Abstract

    Motivated by the unexplored potential of in vitro neural systems for computing and by the corresponding need of versatile, scalable interfaces for multimodal interaction, an accurate, modular, fully customizable, and portable recording/stimulation solution that can be easily fabricated, robustly operated, and broadly disseminated is presented. This approach entails a reconfigurable platform that works across multiple industry standards and that enables a complete signal chain, from neural substrates sampled through micro‐electrode arrays (MEAs) to data acquisition, downstream analysis, and cloud storage. Built‐in modularity supports the seamless integration of electrical/optical stimulation and fluidic interfaces. Custom MEA fabrication leverages maskless photolithography, favoring the rapid prototyping of a variety of configurations, spatial topologies, and constitutive materials. Through a dedicated analysis and management software suite, the utility and robustness of this system are demonstrated across neural cultures and applications, including embryonic stem cell‐derived and primary neurons, organotypic brain slices, 3D engineered tissue mimics, concurrent calcium imaging, and long‐term recording. Overall, this technology, termed “mind in vitro” to underscore the computing inspiration, provides an end‐to‐end solution that can be widely deployed due to its affordable (>10× cost reduction) and open‐source nature, catering to the expanding needs of both conventional and unconventional electrophysiology.

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  4. Abstract

    Key solutions for material selection, processing, and performance of environmentally friendly high‐power generators are addressed. High voltage and high power generation of flexible devices using piezoelectric Bi0.5(Na0.78K0.22)TiO3nanoparticle filler–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric matrix for a lead‐free piezoelectric composite film on a cellulose paper substrate is demonstrated. To elucidate the principle of power generation by the piezoelectric composite configuration, the dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics of the composite film are investigated and the results are compared with those of theoretical modeling. The paper‐based composite generator produces a large output voltage of ≈100 V and an average current of ≈20 µA (max. ≈30 µA) through tapping stimulation, which is a record‐high performance compared to previously reported flexible lead‐free piezoelectric composite energy harvesters. Moreover, a triboelectric‐hybridized piezoelectric composite device using a micro‐patterned PDMS shows a much higher output voltage of ≈250 V and output power of ≈0.5 mW, which drives 300 light‐emitting diodes. These results prove that a new class of paper‐based and lead‐free energy harvesting device provides a strong possibility for enlarging the functionality and the capability of high‐power scavengers in flexible and wearable electronics such as sensors and medical devices.

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  5. Abstract

    In the past two decades, mechanical energy harvesting technologies have been developed in various ways to support or power small‐scale electronics. Nevertheless, the strategy for enhancing current and charge performance of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters using a simple and cost‐effective process is still a challenging issue. Herein, a 1D–3D (1‐3) fully piezoelectric nanocomposite is developed using perovskite BaTiO3(BT) nanowire (NW)‐employed poly(vinylidene fluoride‐co‐trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF‐TrFE)) for a high‐performance hybrid nanocomposite generator (hNCG) device. The harvested output of the flexible hNCG reaches up to ≈14 V and ≈4 µA, which is higher than the current levels of even previous piezoceramic film‐based flexible energy harvesters. Finite element analysis method simulations study that the outstanding performance of hNCG devices attributes to not only the piezoelectric synergy of well‐controlled BT NWs and within P(VDF‐TrFE) matrix, but also the effective stress transferability of piezopolymer. As a proof of concept, the flexible hNCG is directly attached to a hand to scavenge energy using a human motion in various biomechanical frequencies for self‐powered wearable patch device applications. This research can pave the way for a new approach to high‐performance wearable and biocompatible self‐sufficient electronics.

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  6. Abstract

    Hollow carbon–silica nanospheres that exhibit angle‐independent structural color with high saturation and minimal absorption are made. Through scattering calculations, it is shown that the structural color arises from Mie resonances that are tuned precisely by varying the thickness of the shells. Since the color does not depend on the spatial arrangement of the particles, the coloration is angle independent and vibrant in powders and liquid suspensions. These properties make hollow carbon–silica nanospheres ideal for applications, and their potential in making flexible, angle‐independent films and 3D printed films is explored.

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