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  1. Abstract EPW is an open-source software for ab initio calculations of electron–phonon interactions and related materials properties. The code combines density functional perturbation theory and maximally localized Wannier functions to efficiently compute electron–phonon coupling matrix elements, and to perform predictive calculations of temperature-dependent properties and phonon-assisted quantum processes in bulk solids and low-dimensional materials. Here, we report on significant developments in the code since 2016, namely: a transport module for the calculation of charge carrier mobility under electric and magnetic fields using the Boltzmann transport equation; a superconductivity module for calculations of phonon-mediated superconductors using the anisotropic multi-band Eliashberg theory; an optics module for calculations of phonon-assisted indirect transitions; a module for the calculation of small and large polarons without supercells; and a module for calculating band structure renormalization and temperature-dependent optical spectra using the special displacement method. For each capability, we outline the methodology and implementation and provide example calculations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Rutile compounds have exotic functional properties that can be applied for various electronic applications; however, the limited availability of epitaxial substrates has restricted the study of rutile thin films to a limited range of lattice parameters. Here, rutile GeO 2 is demonstrated as a new rutile substrate with lattice parameters of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Rutile GeO 2 single crystals up to 4 mm in size are grown by the flux method. X-ray diffraction reveals high crystallinity with a rocking curve having a full width half-maximum of 0.0572°. After mechanical polishing, a surface roughness of less than 0.1 nm was obtained, and reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows a crystalline surface. Finally, epitaxial growth of (110)-oriented TiO 2 thin films on GeO 2 substrates was demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy. Templated by rutile GeO 2 substrates, our findings open the possibility of stabilizing new rutile thin films and strain states for the tuning of physical properties.
  3. Abstract

    Entropic stabilization has evolved into a strategy to create new oxide materials and realize novel functional properties engineered through the alloy composition. Achieving an atomistic understanding of these properties to enable their design, however, has been challenging due to the local compositional and structural disorder that underlies their fundamental structure-property relationships. Here, we combine high-throughput atomistic calculations and linear regression algorithms to investigate the role of local configurational and structural disorder on the thermodynamics of vacancy formation in (MgCoNiCuZn)O-based entropy-stabilized oxides (ESOs) and their influence on the electrical properties. We find that the cation-vacancy formation energies decrease with increasing local tensile strain caused by the deviation of the bond lengths in ESOs from the equilibrium bond length in the binary oxides. The oxygen-vacancy formation strongly depends on structural distortions associated with the local configuration of chemical species. Vacancies in ESOs exhibit deep thermodynamic transition levels that inhibit electrical conduction. By applying the charge-neutrality condition, we determine that the equilibrium concentrations of both oxygen and cation vacancies increase with increasing Cu mole fraction. Our results demonstrate that tuning the local chemistry and associated structural distortions by varying alloy composition acts an engineering principle that enables controlled defect formation in multi-componentmore »alloys.

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  4. Abstract

    BAs is a III–V semiconductor with ultra-high thermal conductivity, but many of its electronic properties are unknown. This work applies predictive atomistic calculations to investigate the properties of BAs heterostructures, such as strain effects on band alignments and carrier mobility, considering BAs as both a thin film and a substrate for lattice-matched materials. The results show that isotropic biaxial in-plane strain decreases the band gap independent of sign or direction. In addition, 1% biaxial tensile strain increases the in-plane electron and hole mobilities at 300 K by >60% compared to the unstrained values due to a reduction of the electron effective mass and of hole interband scattering. Moreover, BAs is shown to be nearly lattice-matched with InGaN and ZnSnN2, two important optoelectronic semiconductors with tunable band gaps by alloying and cation disorder, respectively. The results predict type-II band alignments and determine the absolute band offsets of these two materials with BAs. The combination of the ultra-high thermal conductivity and intrinsic p-type character of BAs, with its high electron and hole mobilities that can be further increased by tensile strain, as well as the lattice-match and the type-II band alignment with intrinsically n-type InGaN and ZnSnN2demonstrate the potential of BAs heterostructuresmore »for electronic and optoelectronic devices.

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