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  1. Abstract Methods for detecting community structure in networks typically aim to identify a single best partition of network nodes into communities, often by optimizing some objective function, but in real-world applications there may be many competitive partitions with objective scores close to the global optimum and one can obtain a more informative picture of the community structure by examining a representative set of such high-scoring partitions than by looking at just the single optimum. However, such a set can be difficult to interpret since its size can easily run to hundreds or thousands of partitions. In this paper we present a method for analyzing large partition sets by dividing them into groups of similar partitions and then identifying an archetypal partition as a representative of each group. The resulting set of archetypal partitions provides a succinct, interpretable summary of the form and variety of community structure in any network. We demonstrate the method on a range of example networks. 
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  2. Abstract

    While significant effort has been devoted to understand the role of intraurban characteristics on sustainability and growth, much remains to be understood about the effect of interurban interactions and the role cities have in determining each other’s urban welfare. Here we consider a global mobility network of population flows between cities as a proxy for the communication between these regions, and analyze how it correlates with socioeconomic indicators. We use several measures of centrality to rank cities according to their importance in the mobility network, finding PageRank to be the most effective measure for reflecting these prosperity indicators. Our analysis reveals that the characterization of the welfare of cities based on mobility information hinges on their corresponding development stage. Namely, while network-based predictions of welfare correlate well with economic indicators in mature cities, for developing urban areas additional information about the prosperity of their mobility neighborhood is needed. We develop a simple generative model for the allocation of population flows out of a city that balances the costs and benefits of interaction with other cities that are successful, finding that it provides a strong fit to the flows observed in the global mobility network and highlights the differences in flow patterns between developed and developing urban regions. Our results hint towards the importance of leveraging interurban connections in service of urban development and welfare.

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  3. Abstract

    The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been holding the world hostage for several years now. Mobility is key to viral spreading and its restriction is the main non-pharmaceutical interventions to fight the virus expansion. Previous works have shown a connection between the structural organization of cities and the movement patterns of their residents. This puts urban centers in the focus of epidemic surveillance and interventions. Here we show that the organization of urban flows has a tremendous impact on disease spreading and on the amenability of different mitigation strategies. By studying anonymous and aggregated intra-urban flows in a variety of cities in the United States and other countries, and a combination of empirical analysis and analytical methods, we demonstrate that the response of cities to epidemic spreading can be roughly classified in two major types according to the overall organization of those flows. Hierarchical cities, where flows are concentrated primarily between mobility hotspots, are particularly vulnerable to the rapid spread of epidemics. Nevertheless, mobility restrictions in such types of cities are very effective in mitigating the spread of a virus. Conversely, in sprawled cities which present many centers of activity, the spread of an epidemic is much slower, but the response to mobility restrictions is much weaker and less effective. Investing resources on early monitoring and prompt ad-hoc interventions in more vulnerable cities may prove helpful in containing and reducing the impact of future pandemics.

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  4. Estrada, Ernesto (Ed.)
    Abstract The friendship paradox is the observation that the degrees of the neighbours of a node in any network will, on average, be greater than the degree of the node itself. In common parlance, your friends have more friends than you do. In this article, we develop the mathematical theory of the friendship paradox, both in general as well as for specific model networks, focusing not only on average behaviour but also on variation about the average and using generating function methods to calculate full distributions of quantities of interest. We compare the predictions of our theory with measurements on a large number of real-world network datasets and find remarkably good agreement. We also develop equivalent theory for the generalized friendship paradox, which compares characteristics of nodes other than degree to those of their neighbours. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Belief propagation is a widely used message passing method for the solution of probabilistic models on networks such as epidemic models, spin models, and Bayesian graphical models, but it suffers from the serious shortcoming that it works poorly in the common case of networks that contain short loops. Here, we provide a solution to this long-standing problem, deriving a belief propagation method that allows for fast calculation of probability distributions in systems with short loops, potentially with high density, as well as giving expressions for the entropy and partition function, which are notoriously difficult quantities to compute. Using the Ising model as an example, we show that our approach gives excellent results on both real and synthetic networks, improving substantially on standard message passing methods. We also discuss potential applications of our method to a variety of other problems. 
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