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  1. Low-cost sensors enable finer-scale spatiotemporal measurements within the existing methane (CH 4 ) monitoring infrastructure and could help cities mitigate CH 4 emissions to meet their climate goals. While initial studies of low-cost CH 4 sensors have shown potential for effective CH 4 measurement at ambient concentrations, sensor deployment remains limited due to questions about interferences and calibration across environments and seasons. This study evaluates sensor performance across seasons with specific attention paid to the sensor's understudied carbon monoxide (CO) interferences and environmental dependencies through long-term ambient co-location in an urban environment. The sensor was first evaluated in a laboratory using chamber calibration and co-location experiments, and then in the field through two 8 week co-locations with a reference CH 4 instrument. In the laboratory, the sensor was sensitive to CH 4 concentrations below ambient background concentrations. Different sensor units responded similarly to changing CH 4 , CO, temperature, and humidity conditions but required individual calibrations to account for differences in sensor response factors. When deployed in-field, co-located with a reference instrument near Baltimore, MD, the sensor captured diurnal trends in hourly CH 4 concentration after corrections for temperature, absolute humidity, CO concentration, and hour of day. Variable performance was observed across seasons with the sensor performing well ( R 2 = 0.65; percent bias 3.12%; RMSE 0.10 ppm) in the winter validation period and less accurately ( R 2 = 0.12; percent bias 3.01%; RMSE 0.08 ppm) in the summer validation period where there was less dynamic range in CH 4 concentrations. The results highlight the utility of sensor deployment in more variable ambient CH 4 conditions and demonstrate the importance of accounting for temperature and humidity dependencies as well as co-located CO concentrations with low-cost CH 4 measurements. We show this can be addressed via Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models accounting for key covariates to enable urban measurements in areas with CH 4 enhancement. Together with individualized calibration prior to deployment, the sensor shows promise for use in low-cost sensor networks and represents a valuable supplement to existing monitoring strategies to identify CH 4 hotspots. 
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  2. Abstract. Low-cost sensors are often co-located with reference instruments to assess their performance and establish calibration equations, but limiteddiscussion has focused on whether the duration of this calibration period can be optimized. We placed a multipollutant monitor that containedsensors that measured particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogendioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and nitric oxide (NO) at a reference field site for 1 year. We developed calibration equationsusing randomly selected co-location subsets spanning 1 to 180 consecutive days out of the 1-year period and compared the potential root-mean-square error (RMSE) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) values. The co-located calibration period required to obtain consistent results varied bysensor type, and several factors increased the co-location duration required for accurate calibration, including the response of a sensor toenvironmental factors, such as temperature or relative humidity (RH), or cross-sensitivities to other pollutants. Using measurements fromBaltimore, MD, where a broad range of environmental conditions may be observed over a given year, we found diminishing improvements in the medianRMSE for calibration periods longer than about 6 weeks for all the sensors. The best performing calibration periods were the ones that contained arange of environmental conditions similar to those encountered during the evaluation period (i.e., all other days of the year not used in thecalibration). With optimal, varying conditions it was possible to obtain an accurate calibration in as little as 1 week for all sensors, suggestingthat co-location can be minimized if the period is strategically selected and monitored so that the calibration period is representative of thedesired measurement setting. 
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  3. Abstract

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent technological advancements permit the collection of time-resolved personal exposure data. Such data are often incomplete with missing observations and exposures below the limit of detection, which limit their use in health effects studies. In this paper, we develop an infinite hidden Markov model for multiple asynchronous multivariate time series with missing data. Our model is designed to include covariates that can inform transitions among hidden states. We implement beam sampling, a combination of slice sampling and dynamic programming, to sample the hidden states, and a Bayesian multiple imputation algorithm to impute missing data. In simulation studies, our model excels in estimating hidden states and state-specific means and imputing observations that are missing at random or below the limit of detection. We validate our imputation approach on data from the Fort Collins Commuter Study. We show that the estimated hidden states improve imputations for data that are missing at random compared to existing approaches. In a case study of the Fort Collins Commuter Study, we describe the inferential gains obtained from our model including improved imputation of missing data and the ability to identify shared patterns in activity and exposure among repeated sampling days for individuals and among distinct individuals.

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  4. null (Ed.)