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A Calmodulin-Like Gene (GbCML7) for Fiber Strength and Yield Improvement Identified by Resequencing Core Accessions of a Pedigree in Gossypium barbadenseSea Island cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ) is world-renowned for its superior natural fiber. Although fiber strength is one of the most important fiber quality traits, genes contributing to fiber strength are poorly understood. Production of sea island cotton also is inextricably linked to improving its relatively low yield, thus enhancing the importance of joint improvement of both fiber quality and yield. We used genomic variation to uncover the genetic evidence of trait improvement resulting from pedigree breeding of Sea Island cotton. This pedigree was aimed at improving fiber strength and yielded an elite cultivar, XH35. Using a combination of genome-wide association study (GWAS) and selection screens, we detected 82 putative fiber-strength-related genes. Expression analysis confirmed a calmodulin-like gene, GbCML7 , which enhanced fiber strength in a specific haplotype. This gene is a major-effect gene, which interacts with a minor-effect gene, GbTUA3 , facilitating the enhancement of fiber strength in a synergistic fashion. Moreover, GbCML7 participates in the cooperative improvement of fiber strength, fiber length, and fiber uniformity, though a slight compromise exists between the first two of these traits and the latter. Importantly, GbCML7 is shown to boost yield in some backgrounds by increasing multiple yield components to varyingmore »
In this paper, we report the first experimental observation of internal resonance in a dusty plasma, which shows the intrinsic nonlinearities of dust interactions in plasmas. When driving a system of vertically aligned dust particle pairs in the vertical direction, the horizontal motion is found to be excited during onset of internal resonance when the higher-frequency horizontal sloshing mode is nonlinearly coupled to the vertical breathing mode through the 1:2 commensurable relation. A theoretical model of the nonlinear interaction of dust particles in plasma is also provided and the results of the theoretical model are shown to match experimental observations.
Dust kinetic temperature is a measure of the energy of the stochastic motion of a dust particle and is a result of the combination of the Brownian motion and the fluctuations in the dust charge and confining electric field. A method using the equilibrium value of the mean square displacement was recently introduced to obtain the dust kinetic temperature experimentally. As a follow up, this paper investigates the relationship between the dust kinetic energy derived from the mean square displacement technique and a technique using the probability distribution of the displacements obtained from random fluctuations of the dust particle. The experimental results indicate that the harmonic confinement potential acting on the dust particle can be obtained by combining the two methods, allowing the nonlinear effect of the confining force to be investigated. The thermal expansion in a 1-D vertical chain is discussed as a representative application as it is related to the nonlinear confinement force, or the asymmetric confinement potential.