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  1. Abstract

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) presents advantages such as increased complexity for a lower part cost and part consolidation compared to traditional manufacturing. The multiscale, multiphase AM processes have been shown to produce parts with non-homogeneous microstructures, leading to variability in the mechanical properties based on complex process–structure–property (p-s-p) relationships. However, the wide range of processing parameters in additive machines presents a challenge in solely experimentally understanding these relationships and calls for the use of digital twins that allow to survey a larger set of parameters using physics-driven methods. Even though physics-driven methods advance the understanding of the p-s-p relationships, they still face challenges of high computing cost and the need for calibration of input parameters. Therefore, data-driven methods have emerged as a new paradigm in the exploration of the p-s-p relationships in metal AM. Data-driven methods are capable of predicting complex phenomena without the need for traditional calibration but also present drawbacks of lack of interpretability and complicated validation. This review article presents a collection of physics- and data-driven methods and examples of their application for understanding the linkages in the p-s-p relationships (in any of the links) in widely used metal AM techniques. The review also contains a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of each type of model, as well as a vision for the future role of both physics-driven and data-driven models in metal AM.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    Solidification or hot cracks are commonly observed defects in a number of metal alloys and may lead to deterioration of additively manufactured parts quality. In this study, ultra-high-speed x-ray radiography experiments enable the observation and characterization of bundles of hot-cracks that form in monobloc AA6061 substrate. The crack bundles are related to meltpool characteristics and pore formation. Crack propagation rate is also presented for the case of a crack that initiates from a pore. Two types of relevant pore formation are also described, namely keyhole porosity and crack-remelting porosity. The results of this study are expected to facilitate the validation of theoretical and numerical models of solidification cracking. 
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