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  1. Abstract Climate change is responsible for increased frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme events, such as marine heatwaves (MHWs). Within eastern boundary current systems, MHWs have profound impacts on temperature-nutrient dynamics that drive primary productivity. Bull kelp ( Nereocystis luetkeana ) forests, a vital nearshore habitat, experienced unprecedented losses along 350 km of coastline in northern California beginning in 2014 and continuing through 2019. These losses have had devastating consequences to northern California communities, economies, and fisheries. Using a suite of in situ and satellite-derived data, we demonstrate that the abrupt ecosystem shift initiated by a multi-year MHW was preceded by declines in keystone predator population densities. We show strong evidence that northern California kelp forests, while temporally dynamic, were historically resilient to fluctuating environmental conditions, even in the absence of key top predators, but that a series of coupled environmental and biological shifts between 2014 and 2016 resulted in the formation of a persistent, altered ecosystem state with low primary productivity. Based on our findings, we recommend the implementation of ecosystem-based and adaptive management strategies, such as (1) monitoring the status of key ecosystem attributes: kelp distribution and abundance, and densities of sea urchins and their predators, (2) developing managementmore »responses to threshold levels of these attributes, and (3) creating quantitative restoration suitability indices for informing kelp restoration efforts.« less
  2. Abstract. A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate thequality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the datacompiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA OceanColour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired fromseveral sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD,MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018.Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectralremote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectralinherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients andtotal suspended matter. The data were from multi-project archives acquiredvia open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directlyfrom data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenization,quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to theoriginal data, other than averaging of observations that were close in timeand space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversionto a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed forvalidation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in textformat. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise orexperiment, principal investigator) was propagated throughout the work andmade available in the final table. By making the metadata available,provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analysemore »each setof data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made tothe compilation in relation to the previous version (Valente et al., 2016).The compiled data are available at (Valente et al., 2019).« less