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  1. Viscoelastic flows are pervasive in a host of natural and industrial processes, where the emergence of nonlinear and time-dependent dynamics regulates flow resistance, energy consumption, and particulate dispersal. Polymeric stress induced by the advection and stretching of suspended polymers feeds back on the underlying fluid flow, which ultimately dictates the dynamics, instability, and transport properties of viscoelastic fluids. However, direct experimental quantification of the stress field is challenging, and a fundamental understanding of how Lagrangian flow structure regulates the distribution of polymeric stress is lacking. In this work, we show that the topology of the polymeric stress field precisely mirrors the Lagrangian stretching field, where the latter depends solely on flow kinematics. We develop a general analytical expression that directly relates the polymeric stress and stretching in weakly viscoelastic fluids for both nonlinear and unsteady flows, which is also extended to special cases characterized by strong kinematics. Furthermore, numerical simulations reveal a clear correlation between the stress and stretching field topologies for unstable viscoelastic flows across a broad range of geometries. Ultimately, our results establish a connection between the Eulerian stress field and the Lagrangian structure of viscoelastic flows. This work provides a simple framework to determine the topology ofmore »polymeric stress directly from readily measurable flow field data and lays the foundation for directly linking the polymeric stress to flow transport properties.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2024
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  7. Buan, Nicole R. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Proper disinfection of harvested food and water is critical to minimize infectious disease. Grape seed extract (GSE), a commonly used health supplement, is a mixture of plant-derived polyphenols. Polyphenols possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, but antiviral effects are not well-known. Here we show that GSE outperformed chemical disinfectants (e.g., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. GSE induced virus aggregation, a process that correlated with a decrease in virus titers. This aggregation and disinfection were not reversible. Molecular docking simulations indicate that polyphenols potentially formed hydrogen bonds and strong hydrophobic interactions with specific residues in viral capsid proteins. Together, these data suggest that polyphenols physically associate with viral capsid proteins to aggregate viruses as a means to inhibit virus entry into the host cell. Plant-based polyphenols like GSE are an attractive alternative to chemical disinfectants to remove infectious viruses from water or food. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are major food- and waterborne pathogens, causing approximately 20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis cases in developing and developed countries. Proper sanitation or disinfection are critical strategies to minimize human norovirus-caused disease until a reliable vaccine is created. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a mixture ofmore »plant-derived polyphenols used as a health supplement. Polyphenols are known for antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibiofilm activities, but antiviral effects are not well-known. In studies presented here, plant-derived polyphenols outperformed chemical disinfectants (i.e., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. Based on data from molecular assays and molecular docking simulations, the current model is that the polyphenols in GSE bind to the Tulane virus capsid, an event that triggers virion aggregation. It is thought that this aggregation prevents Tulane virus from entering host cells.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 10, 2023
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  10. One of the most efficient and promising separation alternatives to thermal methods such as distillation is the use of polymeric membranes that separate mixtures based on molecular size or chemical affinity. Self-assembled block copolymer membranes have gained considerable attention within the membrane field due to precise control over nanoscale structure, pore size, and chemical versatility. Despite the rapid progress and excitement, a significant hurdle in using block copolymer membranes for nanometer and sub-nanometer separations such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis is the lower limit on domain size features. Strategies such as polymer post-functionalization, self-assembly of oligomers, liquid crystals, and random copolymers, or incorporation of artificial/natural channels within block copolymer materials are future directions with the potential to overcome current limitations with respect to separation size.