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  1. Abstract

    Detection of low-frequency (≤1.4 GHz) radio emission from stellar and planetary systems can lead to new insights into stellar activity, extrasolar space weather, and planetary magnetic fields. In this work, we investigate three large field-of-view surveys at 74 MHz, 150 MHz, and 1.4 GHz, as well as a myriad of multiwavelength ancillary data, to search for radio emission from about 2600 stellar objects, including about 800 exoplanetary systems, 600 nearby low-mass stars, and 1200 young stellar objects located in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius star-forming regions. The selected sample encompasses stellar spectral types from B to L and distances between 5 and 300 pc. We report the redetection of five stars at 1.4 GHz, one of which also shows emission at 150 MHz. Four of these are low- and intermediate-mass young stars, and one is the evolved starαSco. We also observe radio emission at the position of a young brown dwarf at 1.4 GHz and 150 MHz. However, due to the large astrometric uncertainty of radio observations, a follow-up study at higher angular resolution would be required to confirm whether the observed emission originates from the brown dwarf itself or a background object. Notably, all of the selected radiomore »sources are located in nearby star-forming regions. Furthermore, we use image stacking and statistical methods to derive upper limits on the average quiescent radio luminosity of the families of objects under investigation. These analyses provide observational constraints for large-scale searches for current and ongoing low-frequency radio emissions from stars and planets.

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  2. Abstract

    Discovered in 2011 with LOFAR, the 15 Jy low-frequency radio transient ILT J225347+862146 heralds a potentially prolific population of radio transients at <100 MHz. However, subsequent transient searches in similar parameter space yielded no detections. We test the hypothesis that these surveys at comparable sensitivity have missed the population due to mismatched survey parameters. In particular, the LOFAR survey used only 195 kHz of bandwidth at 60 MHz, while other surveys were at higher frequencies or had wider bandwidth. Using 137 hr of all-sky images from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array, we conduct a narrowband transient search at ∼10 Jy sensitivity with timescales from 10 minutes to 1 day and a bandwidth of 722 kHz at 60 MHz. To model the remaining survey selection effects, we introduce a flexible Bayesian approach for inferring transient rates. We do not detect any transient and find compelling evidence that our nondetection is inconsistent with the detection of ILT J225347+862146. Under the assumption that the transient is astrophysical, we propose two hypotheses that may explain our nondetection. First, the transient population associated with ILT J225347+862146 may have a low all-sky density and display strong temporal clustering. Second, ILT J225347+862146 maymore »be an extreme instance of the fluence distribution, of which we revise the surface density estimate at 15 Jy to 1.1 × 10−7deg−2with a 95% credible interval of (3.5 × 10−12, 3.4 × 10−7) deg−2. Finally, we find a previously identified object coincident with ILT J225347+862146 to be an M dwarf at 420 pc.

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  3. Abstract We present the localization and host galaxies of one repeating and two apparently nonrepeating fast radio bursts (FRBs). FRB 20180301A was detected and localized with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.3304. FRB20191228A and FRB20200906A were detected and localized by the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to host galaxies at z = 0.2430 and z = 0.3688, respectively. We combine these with 13 other well-localized FRBs in the literature, and analyze the host galaxy properties. We find no significant differences in the host properties of repeating and apparently nonrepeating FRBs. FRB hosts are moderately star forming, with masses slightly offset from the star-forming main sequence. Star formation and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region emission are major sources of ionization in FRB host galaxies, with the former dominant in repeating FRB hosts. FRB hosts do not track stellar mass and star formation as seen in field galaxies (more than 95% confidence). FRBs are rare in massive red galaxies, suggesting that progenitor formation channels are not solely dominated by delayed channels which lag star formation by gigayears. The global properties of FRB hosts are indistinguishable from core-collapse supernovae and short gamma-ray bursts hosts, andmore »the spatial offset (from galaxy centers) of FRBs is mostly inconsistent with that of the Galactic neutron star population (95% confidence). The spatial offsets of FRBs (normalized to the galaxy effective radius) also differ from those of globular clusters in late- and early-type galaxies with 95% confidence.« less
  4. Abstract We introduce DAYENU, a linear, spectral filter for HI intensity mapping that achieves the desirable foreground mitigation and error minimization properties of inverse co-variance weighting with minimal modeling of the underlying data. Beyond 21 cm power-spectrum estimation, our filter is suitable for any analysis where high dynamic-range removal of spectrally smooth foregrounds in irregularly (or regularly) sampled data is required, something required by many other intensity mapping techniques. Our filtering matrix is diagonalized by Discrete Prolate Spheroidal Sequences which are an optimal basis to model band-limited foregrounds in 21 cm intensity mapping experiments in the sense that they maximally concentrate power within a finite region of Fourier space. We show that DAYENU enables the access of large-scale line-of-sight modes that are inaccessible to tapered DFT estimators. Since these modes have the largest SNRs, DAYENU significantly increases the sensitivity of 21 cm analyses over tapered Fourier transforms. Slight modifications allow us to use DAYENU as a linear replacement for iterative delay CLEANing (DAYENUREST). We refer readers to the Code section at the end of this paper for links to examples and code.