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  1. The rapid advancement in quantum technology has initiated a new round of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) related exploration. The key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) Saber is an important module lattice-based PQC, which has been selected as one of the PQC finalists in the ongoing National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standardization process. On the other hand, however, efficient hardware implementation of KEM Saber has not been well covered in the literature. In this paper, therefore, we propose a novel cyclic-row oriented processing (CROP) strategy for efficient implementation of the key arithmetic operation of KEM Saber, i.e., the polynomial multiplication. The proposed work consists of three layers of interdependent efforts: (i) first of all, we have formulated the main operation of KEM Saber into desired mathematical forms to be further developed into CROP based algorithms, i.e., the basic version and the advanced higher-speed version; (ii) then, we have followed the proposed CROP strategy to innovatively transfer the derived two algorithms into desired polynomial multiplication structures with the help of a series of algorithm-architecture co-implementation techniques; (iii) finally, detailed complexity analysis and implementation results have shown that the proposed polynomial multiplication structures have better area-time complexities than the state-of-the-art solutions. Specifically, the field-programmablemore »gate array (FPGA) implementation results show that the proposed design, e.g., the basic version has at least less 11.2% area-delay product (ADP) than the best competing one (Cyclone V device). The proposed high-performance polynomial multipliers offer not only efficient operation for output results delivery but also possess low-complexity feature brought by CROP strategy. The outcome of this work is expected to provide useful references for further development and standardization process of KEM Saber.« less