Systolic Acceleration of Polynomial Multiplication for KEM Saber and Binary Ring-LWE Post-Quantum Cryptography
Following the rapid progress in the post-quantum cryptography (PQC) field that many efforts have been gradually switched to the hardware implementation side, this paper presents a novel systolic accelerator for polynomial multiplication within two lattice-based PQC algorithms, key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) Saber and binary Ring-Learning-with-Errors (BRLWE)-based encryption scheme. Based on the observation that polynomial multiplication over ring is the key arithmetic operation for the two PQC schemes, we have proposed a novel systolic accelerator for the targeted polynomial multiplications (applicable to two PQC schemes). Mathematical formulation is given to illustrate the proposed algorithmic operation for both schemes. Then, the proposed systolic accelerator is presented. Finally, field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation results have been provided to confirm the efficiency of the proposed systolic accelerator under two schemes. The proposed accelerator is highly efficient, and the following work may focus on cryptoprocessor design and side-channel attacks.