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  1. Abstract Observed changes in protostellar brightness can be complicated to interpret. In our James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Transient Monitoring Survey, we discovered that a young binary protostar, HOPS 373, is undergoing a modest 30% brightness increase at 850 μ m, caused by a factor of 1.8–3.3 enhancement in the accretion rate. The initial burst occurred over a few months, with a sharp rise and then a shallower decay. A second rise occurred soon after the decay, and the source is still bright one year later. The mid-IR emission, the small-scale CO outflow mapped with ALMA, and the location ofmore »variable maser emission indicate that the variability is associated with the SW component. The near-IR and NEOWISE W1 and W2 emission is located along the blueshifted CO outflow, spatially offset by ∼3 to 4″ from the SW component. The K -band emission imaged by UKIRT shows a compact H 2 emission source at the edge of the outflow, with a tail tracing the outflow back to the source. The W1 emission, likely dominated by scattered light, brightens by 0.7 mag, consistent with expectations based on the submillimeter light curve. The signal of continuum variability in K band and W2 is masked by stable H 2 emission, as seen in our Gemini/GNIRS spectrum, and perhaps by CO emission. These differences in emission sources complicate IR searches for variability of the youngest protostars.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present high-resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the protostar L1527 IRS at 7 mm, 1.3 cm, and 2 cm wavelengths. We detect the edge-on dust disk at all three wavelengths and find that it is asymmetric, with the southern side of the disk brighter than the northern side. We confirm this asymmetry through analytic modeling and also find that the disk is flared at 7 mm. We test the data against models including gap features in the intensity profile, and though we cannot rule such models out, they do not provide a statistically significantmore »improvement in the quality of fit to the data. From these fits, we can, however, place constraints on allowed properties of any gaps that could be present in the true, underlying intensity profile. The physical nature of the asymmetry is difficult to associate with physical features owing to the edge-on nature of the disk, but it could be related to spiral arms or asymmetries seen in other imaging of more face-on disks.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2023
  3. Abstract We present velocity-resolved Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)/upgrade German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies observations of [O i ] and [C ii ] lines toward a Class I protostar, L1551 IRS 5, and its outflows. The SOFIA observations detect [O i ] emission toward only the protostar and [C ii ] emission toward the protostar and the redshifted outflow. The [O i ] emission has a width of ∼100 km s −1 only in the blueshifted velocity, suggesting an origin in shocked gas. The [C ii ] lines are narrow, consistent with an origin in a photodissociationmore »region. Differential dust extinction from the envelope due to the inclination of the outflows is the most likely cause of the missing redshifted [O i ] emission. Fitting the [O i ] line profile with two Gaussian components, we find one component at the source velocity with a width of ∼20 km s −1 and another extremely broad component at −30 km s −1 with a width of 87.5 km s −1 , the latter of which has not been seen in L1551 IRS 5. The kinematics of these two components resemble cavity shocks in molecular outflows and spot shocks in jets. Radiative transfer calculations of the [O i ], high- J CO, and H 2 O lines in the cavity shocks indicate that [O i ] dominates the oxygen budget, making up more than 70% of the total gaseous oxygen abundance and suggesting [O]/[H] of ∼1.5 × 10 −4 . Attributing the extremely broad [O i ] component to atomic winds, we estimate an intrinsic mass-loss rate of (1.3 ± 0.8) × 10 −6 M ⊙ yr −1 . The intrinsic mass-loss rates derived from low- J CO, [O i ], and H i are similar, supporting the model of momentum-conserving outflows, where the atomic wind carries most momentum and drives the molecular outflows.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT The ATOMS, standing for ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions, survey has observed 146 active star-forming regions with ALMA band 3, aiming to systematically investigate the spatial distribution of various dense gas tracers in a large sample of Galactic massive clumps, to study the roles of stellar feedback in star formation, and to characterize filamentary structures inside massive clumps. In this work, the observations, data analysis, and example science of the ATOMS survey are presented, using a case study for the G9.62+0.19 complex. Toward this source, some transitions, commonly assumed to trace dense gas, including CS J = 2−1,more »HCO+J = 1−0, and HCN J = 1−0, are found to show extended gas emission in low-density regions within the clump; less than 25 per cent of their emission is from dense cores. SO, CH3OH, H13CN, and HC3N show similar morphologies in their spatial distributions and reveal well the dense cores. Widespread narrow SiO emission is present (over ∼1 pc), which may be caused by slow shocks from large–scale colliding flows or H ii regions. Stellar feedback from an expanding H ii region has greatly reshaped the natal clump, significantly changed the spatial distribution of gas, and may also account for the sequential high-mass star formation in the G9.62+0.19 complex. The ATOMS survey data can be jointly analysed with other survey data, e.g. MALT90, Orion B, EMPIRE, ALMA_IMF, and ALMAGAL, to deepen our understandings of ‘dense gas’ star formation scaling relations and massive protocluster formation.« less