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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  2. Switching of magnetization by spin–orbit torque in the (Ga,Mn)(As,P) film was studied with currents along ⟨100⟩ crystal directions and an in-plane magnetic field bias. This geometry allowed us to identify the presence of two independent spin–orbit-induced magnetic fields: the Rashba field and the Dresselhaus field. Specifically, we observe that when the in-plane bias field is along the current (I[Formula: see text]H bias ), switching is dominated by the Rashba field, while the Dresselhaus field dominates magnetization reversal when the bias field is perpendicular to the current (I ⊥ H bias ). In our experiments, the magnitudes of the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields were determined to be 2.0 and 7.5 Oe, respectively, at a current density of 8.0 × 10 5 A/cm 2 . 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  4. Interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) has been intensively investigated in magnetic multilayers, owing to its potential for magnetic memory and logic device applications. Although IEC can be reliably obtained in metallic ferromagnetic multilayer systems by adjusting structural parameters, it is difficult to achieve gate control of IEC in metallic systems due to their large carrier densities. Here, we demonstrate that IEC can be reliably controlled in ferromagnetic semiconductor (FMS) trilayer structures by means of an external gate voltage. We show that, by designing a quantum-well-type trilayer structure based on (Ga,Mn)(As,P) FMSs and adapting the ionic liquid gating technique, the carrier density in the nonmagnetic spacer of the system can be modulated with gate voltages of only a few volts. Due to this capability, we are able to vary the strength of IEC by as much as 49% in the FMS trilayer. These results provide important insights into design of spintronic devices and their energy-efficient operation. 
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    Abstract Spin–orbit-induced (SOI) effective magnetic field in GaMnAs film with in-plane magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by planar Hall effect measurements. The presence of SOI field was identified by a shift between planar Hall resistance (PHR) hystereses observed with positive and negative currents. The difference of switching fields occurring between the two current polarities, which is determined by the strength of the SOI field, is shown to depend on the external field direction. In this paper we have developed a method for obtaining the magnitude of the SOI fields based on magnetic free energy that includes the effects of magnetic anisotropy and the SOI field. Using this approach, the SOI field for a given current density was accurately obtained by fitting to the observed dependence of the switching fields on the applied field directions. Values of the SOI field obtained with field scan PHR measurements give results that are consistent with those obtained by analyzing the angular dependence of PHR, indicating the reliability of the field scan PHR method for quantifying the SOI-field in GaMnAs films. The magnitude of the SOI field systematically increases with increasing current density, demonstrating the usefulness of SOI fields for manipulation of magnetization by current in GaMnAs films. 
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    Abstract The removal mechanism of refractory deep-ocean dissolved organic carbon (deep-DOC) is poorly understood. The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) serves as a natural test basin for assessing the fate of deep-DOC when it is supplied with a large amount of fresh-DOC and exposed to strong solar radiation during the polynya opening in austral summer. We measured the radiocarbon content of DOC in the water column on the western Amundsen shelf. The radiocarbon content of DOC in the surface water of the ASP reflected higher primary production than in the region covered by sea ice. The radiocarbon measurements of DOC, taken two years apart in the ASP, were different, suggesting rapid cycling of DOC. The increase in DOC concentration was less than expected from the observed increase in radiocarbon content from those at the greatest depths. Based on a radiocarbon mass balance, we show that deep-DOC is consumed along with fresh-DOC in the ASP. Our observations imply that water circulation through the surface layer, where fresh-DOC is produced, may play an important role in global DOC cycling. 
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