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  1. Abstract Microbial production of fuels, chemicals, and materials has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to a sustainable bioeconomy. While synthetic biology allows readjusting of native metabolic pathways for the synthesis of desired products, often these native pathways do not support maximum efficiency and are affected by complex regulatory mechanisms. A synthetic or engineered pathway that allows modular synthesis of versatile bioproducts with minimal enzyme requirement and regulation while achieving high carbon and energy efficiency could be an alternative solution to address these issues. The reverse β-oxidation (rBOX) pathways enable iterative non-decarboxylative elongation of carbon molecules of varying chain lengths and functional groups with only four core enzymes and no ATP requirement. Here, we describe recent developments in rBOX pathway engineering to produce alcohols and carboxylic acids with diverse functional groups, along with other commercially important molecules such as polyketides. We discuss the application of rBOX beyond the pathway itself by its interfacing with various carbon-utilization pathways and deployment in different organisms, which allows feedstock diversification from sugars to glycerol, carbon dioxide, methane, and other substrates.
  2. Abstract Fractional Chern insulators (FCIs) are lattice analogues of fractional quantum Hall states that may provide a new avenue towards manipulating non-Abelian excitations. Early theoretical studies 1–7 have predicted their existence in systems with flat Chern bands and highlighted the critical role of a particular quantum geometry. However, FCI states have been observed only in Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) aligned with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) 8 , in which a very large magnetic field is responsible for the existence of the Chern bands, precluding the realization of FCIs at zero field. By contrast, magic-angle twisted BLG 9–12 supports flat Chern bands at zero magnetic field 13–17 , and therefore offers a promising route towards stabilizing zero-field FCIs. Here we report the observation of eight FCI states at low magnetic field in magic-angle twisted BLG enabled by high-resolution local compressibility measurements. The first of these states emerge at 5 T, and their appearance is accompanied by the simultaneous disappearance of nearby topologically trivial charge density wave states. We demonstrate that, unlike the case of the BLG/hBN platform, the principal role of the weak magnetic field is merely to redistribute the Berry curvature of the native Chern bands and thereby realize a quantum geometry favourablemore »for the emergence of FCIs. Our findings strongly suggest that FCIs may be realized at zero magnetic field and pave the way for the exploration and manipulation of anyonic excitations in flat moiré Chern bands.« less
  3. Spin waves are collective excitations of magnetic systems. An attractive setting for studying long-lived spin-wave physics is the quantum Hall (QH) ferromagnet, which forms spontaneously in clean two-dimensional electron systems at low temperature and in a perpendicular magnetic field. We used out-of-equilibrium occupation of QH edge channels in graphene to excite and detect spin waves in magnetically ordered QH states. Our experiments provide direct evidence for long-distance spin-wave propagation through different ferromagnetic phases in theN= 0 Landau level, as well as across the insulating canted antiferromagnetic phase. Our results will enable experimental investigation of the fundamental magnetic properties of these exotic two-dimensional electron systems.

  4. Abstract

    Advances in the understanding of nanoscale ionic processes in solid‐state thin films have led to the rapid development of devices based on coupled ionic–electronic effects. For example, ion‐driven resistive‐switching (RS) devices have been extensively studied for future memory applications due to their excellent performance in terms of switching speed, endurance, retention, and scalability. Recent studies further suggest that RS devices are more than just resistors with tunable resistance; instead, they exhibit rich and complex internal ionic dynamics that equip them with native information‐processing capabilities, particularly in the temporal domain. RS effects induced by the migration of different types of ions, often driven by an electric field, are discussed. It is shown that, by taking advantage of the different state variables controlled by the ionic processes, important synaptic functions can be faithfully implemented in solid‐state devices and networks. Recent efforts on improving the controllability of ionic processes to optimize device performance are also discussed, along with new opportunities for material design and engineering enabled by the ability to control ionic processes at the atomic scale.

  5. Abstract

    Memristors have emerged as transformative devices to enable neuromorphic and in‐memory computing, where success requires the identification and development of materials that can overcome challenges in retention and device variability. Here, high‐entropy oxide composed of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W oxides is first demonstrated as a switching material for valence change memory. This multielement oxide material provides uniform distribution and higher concentration of oxygen vacancies, limiting the stochastic behavior in resistive switching. (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) high‐entropy‐oxide‐based memristors manifest the “cocktail effect,” exhibiting comparable retention with HfO2‐ or Ta2O5‐based memristors while also demonstrating the gradual conductance modulation observed in WO3‐based memristors. The electrical characterization of these high‐entropy‐oxide‐based memristors demonstrates forming‐free operation, low device and cycle variability, gradual conductance modulation, 6‐bit operation, and long retention which are promising for neuromorphic applications.