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  1. The resistance of surfaces to biomaterial adsorption/adhesion is paramount for advancing marine and biomedical industries. A variety of approaches that involve bioinert materials have been developed to modify surfaces. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are powerful platforms in which the surface composition is easily fabricated and a well-defined structure is provided; thus, the molecular-level interaction between biomolecules/biofoulants and the surface can be understood. In this review, we describe a wide variety of SAM structures on gold and silica surfaces for antifouling applications and the corresponding mechanism of nonfouling surfaces. Our analysis divides the surface properties of films into the following types: (1) hydrophilic, (2) hydrophobic, and (3) amphiphilic films.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 5, 2023
  3. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have found use in diverse applications that range from corrosion prevention to biosensing. However, for all of these applications, stability remains a key challenge for the utilization of SAMs. Over the last decade, intermolecular crosslinking as a method to enhance the thermal and chemical stability of SAMs has attracted increased attention from scientists and engineers. As such, this review introduces a variety of crosslinked SAMs: (1) aromatic thiol-based SAMs; (2) olefinic- and acetylenic-based alkanethiols; (3) other aliphatic alkanethiols; (4) silane-based alkanethiols; (5) boronic acid-based alkanethiols; and (6) crosslinked SAMs realized by hydrogen bonding. By offering insight into the structure-application relationships of the aforementioned SAMs, this review seeks to inspire researchers toward the development of new classes of SAMs with enhanced stabilities and working lifetimes.
  4. The antifouling properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold generated from custom-designed bidentate unsymmetrical spiroalkanedithiols containing both oligo(ethylene glycol) and hydrocarbon tailgroups (EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18) were evaluated and compared to SAMs derived from analogous monodentate octadecanethiol (C18SH) and the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkanethiol EG3C7SH. Complementary techniques, including in situ surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), ex situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and ex situ ellipsometric thickness measurements, were employed to assess the protein resistance of the SAMs using proteins having a wide range of sizes, structures, and properties: protamine, lysozyme, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and fibrinogen. The studies found that SAMs generated from the bidentate adsorbates EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18, which contain a 1:1 mixture of OEG and hydrocarbon tailgroups, exhibited a diminished capacity to resist protein adsorption compared to the EG3C7SH SAMs, which possess only OEG tailgroups. The data highlight the critical role of hydration of the OEG matrix for generating antifouling OEG-based surface coatings.