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  1. The evolution of oxygen cycles on Earth’s surface has been regulated by the balance between molecular oxygen production and consumption. The Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic transition likely marks the second rise in atmospheric and oceanic oxygen levels, widely attributed to enhanced burial of organic carbon. However, it remains disputed how marine organic carbon production and burial respond to global environmental changes and whether these feedbacks trigger global oxygenation during this interval. Here, we report a large lithium isotopic and elemental dataset from marine mudstones spanning the upper Neoproterozoic to middle Cambrian [~660 million years ago (Ma) to 500 Ma]. These data indicate a dramatic increase in continental clay formation after ~525 Ma, likely linked to secular changes in global climate and compositions of the continental crust. Using a global biogeochemical model, we suggest that intensified continental weathering and clay delivery to the oceans could have notably increased the burial efficiency of organic carbon and facilitated greater oxygen accumulation in the earliest Paleozoic oceans. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 29, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We prove that various spaces of constrained positive scalar curvature metrics on compact three‐manifolds with boundary, when not empty, are contractible. The constraints we mostly focus on are given in terms of local conditions on the mean curvature of the boundary, and our treatment includes both the mean‐convex and the minimal case. We then discuss the implications of these results on the topology of different subspaces of asymptotically flat initial data sets for the Einstein field equations in general relativity.

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  5. Advances in laser technology have driven discoveries in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics and emerging applications, from quantum computers with cold atoms or ions, to quantum networks with solid-state color centers. This progress is motivating the development of a new generation of optical control systems that can manipulate the light field with high fidelity at wavelengths relevant for AMO applications. These systems are characterized by criteria: (C1) operation at a design wavelength of choice in the visible (VIS) or near-infrared (IR) spectrum, (C2) a scalable platform that can support large channel counts, (C3) high-intensity modulation extinction and (C4) repeatability compatible with low gate errors, and (C5) fast switching times. Here, we provide a pathway to address these challenges by introducing an atom control architecture based on VIS-IR photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology. Based on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor fabrication process, this atom-control PIC (APIC) technology can meet system requirements (C1)–(C5). As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a 16-channel silicon-nitride-based APIC with (5.8±0.4)ns response times and >30dB extinction ratio at a wavelength of 780 nm.

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  6. Abstract We show that a complete, two-sided, stable immersed anisotropic minimal hypersurface in $\mathbf {R}^4$ has intrinsic cubic volume growth, provided the parametric elliptic integral is $C^2$ -close to the area functional. We also obtain an interior volume upper bound for stable anisotropic minimal hypersurfaces in the unit ball. We can estimate the constants explicitly in all of our results. In particular, this paper gives an alternative proof of our recent stable Bernstein theorem for minimal hypersurfaces in $\mathbf {R}^4$ . The new proof is more closely related to techniques from the study of strictly positive scalar curvature. 
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  7. The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) event at ca. 497−494 Ma was a major carbon-cycle perturbation of the late Cambrian that coincided with rapid diversity changes among trilobites. Several scenarios (e.g., climatic/oceanic cooling and seawater anoxia) have been proposed to account for an extinction of trilobites at the onset of SPICE, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a chemostratigraphic study of carbonate carbon and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS) and elemental redox proxies (UEF, MoEF, and Corg/P), augmented by secular trilobite diversity data, from both upper slope (Wangcun) and lower slope (Duibian) successions from the Jiangnan Slope, South China, spanning the Drumian to lower Jiangshanian. Redox data indicate locally/regionally well-oxygenated conditions throughout the SPICE event in both study sections except for low-oxygen (hypoxic) conditions within the rising limb of the SPICE (early-middle Paibian) at Duibian. As in coeval sections globally, the reported δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS profiles exhibit first-order coupling throughout the SPICE event, reflecting co-burial of organic matter and pyrite controlled by globally integrated marine productivity, organic preservation rates, and shelf hypoxia. Increasing δ34SCAS in the “Early SPICE” interval (late Guzhangian) suggests that significant environmental change (e.g., global-oceanic hypoxia) was under way before the global carbon cycle was markedly affected. Assessment of trilobite range data within a high-resolution biostratigraphic framework for the middle-late Cambrian facilitated re-evaluation of the relationship of the SPICE to contemporaneous biodiversity changes. Trilobite diversity in South China declined during the Early SPICE (corresponding to the End-Marjuman Biomere Extinction, or EMBE, of Laurentia) and at the termination of the SPICE (corresponding to the End-Steptoean Biomere Extinction, or ESBE, of Laurentia), consistent with biotic patterns from other cratons. We infer that oxygen minimum zone and/or shelf hypoxia expanded as a result of locally enhanced productivity due to intensified upwelling following climatic cooling, and that expanded hypoxia played a major role in the EMBE at the onset of SPICE. During the SPICE event, global-ocean ventilation promoted marine biotic recovery, but termination of SPICE-related cooling in the late Paibian may have reduced global-ocean circulation, triggering further redox changes that precipitated the ESBE. Major changes in both marine environmental conditions and trilobite diversity during the late Guzhangian demonstrate that the SPICE event began earlier than the Guzhangian-Paibian boundary, as previously proposed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 12, 2024