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Creators/Authors contains: "Li, Jiaqi"

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  1. Abstract

    Understanding the organization and dynamics of turbulence structures in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) is important for fundamental and applied research in different fields, including weather prediction, snow settling, particle and pollutant transport, and wind energy. The main challenges associated with probing and modeling turbulence in the ASL are: i) the broad range of turbulent scales associated with the different eddies present in high Reynolds-number boundary layers ranging from the viscous scale (𝒪(mm)) up to large energy-containing structures (𝒪(km)); ii) the non-stationarity of the wind conditions and the variability associated with the daily cycle of the atmospheric stability; iii) the interactions among eddies of different sizes populating different layers of the ASL, which contribute to momentum, energy, and scalar turbulent fluxes. Creative and innovative measurement techniques are required to probe near-surface turbulence by generating spatio-temporally-resolved data in the proximity of the ground and, at the same time, covering the entire ASL height with large enough streamwise extent to characterize the dynamics of larger eddies evolving aloft. To this aim, the U.S. National Science Foundation sponsored the development of the Grand-scale Atmospheric Imaging Apparatus (GAIA) enabling super-large snow particle image velocimetry (SLPIV) in the near-surface region of the ASL. This inaugural version of GAIA provides a comprehensive measuring system by coupling SLPIV and two scanning Doppler LiDARs to probe the ASL at an unprecedented resolution. A field campaign performed in 2021–2022 and its preliminary results are presented herein elucidating new research opportunities enabled by the GAIA measuring system.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 20, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The upper boundary of the mantle transition zone, known as the “410-km discontinuity”, is attributed to the phase transformation of the mineral olivine (α) to wadsleyite (β olivine). Here we present observations of triplicated P-waves from dense seismic arrays that constrain the structure of the subducting Pacific slab near the 410-km discontinuity beneath the northern Sea of Japan. Our analysis of P-wave travel times and waveforms at periods as short as 2 s indicates the presence of an ultra-low-velocity layer within the cold slab, with a P-wave velocity that is at least ≈20% lower than in the ambient mantle and an apparent thickness of ≈20 km along the wave path. This ultra-low-velocity layer could contain unstable material (e.g., poirierite) with reduced grain size where diffusionless transformations are favored.

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  3. Seismic imaging shows a melt fraction of up to 20% in the depth range that supplied prior Yellowstone eruptions. 
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  4. Abstract

    The detailed characterization of snow particles is critical for understanding the snow settling behavior and modeling the ground snow accumulation for various applications such as prevention of avalanches and snowmelt‐caused floods, etc. In this study, we present a snow particle analyzer for simultaneous measurements of various properties of fresh falling snow, including their size, shape, type, and density. The analyzer consists of a digital inline holography module for imaging falling snow particles in a sample volume of 88 cm3and a high‐precision scale to measure the weight of the same particles in a synchronized fashion. The holographic images are processed in real‐time using a machine learning model and post‐processing to determine snow particle size, shape, and type. Such information is used to obtain the estimated volume, which is subsequently correlated with the weight of snow particles to estimate their density. The performance of the analyzer is assessed using monodispersed spherical glass and foam beads, irregular salt crystals, and thin disks with various shapes with known density, which shows <10% density measurement errors. In addition, the analyzer was tested in a number of field deployments under different snow and wind conditions. The system is able to achieve measurements of various snow properties at single particle resolution and statistical robustness. The analyzer was also deployed for 4 hr of operation during a snow event with changing snow and wind conditions, demonstrating its potential for long‐term and real‐time monitoring of the time‐varying snow properties in the field.

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